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Mammalian hibernation is a complex phenotype involving metabolic rate reduction, bradycardia, profound hypothermia, and a reliance on stored fat that allows the animal to survive for months without food in a state of suspended animation. To determine the genes responsible for this phenotype in the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus)(More)
Rats were conditioned to fear a tone paired with shock to the feet. Retention tests 4 days later showed that consolidation had occurred. Other animals were not tested for retention at 4 days, but the tone was presented in order to reactivate their memories of the conditioning. An amnesia gradient was generated by low-intensity electrical stimulation of the(More)
Three experiments were designed to investigate some effects of low-level stimulation of the amygdaloid complex (AMYG) and the mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF). Experiment 1 used a tilt box to test for motivational and/or reinforcement effects and failed to demonstrate these effects with stimulation of either structure. Experiment 2 used a one-trial(More)
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