Brian R . Flay

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The concepts of efficacy and effectiveness are examined from the viewpoints of the traditions and philosophies of health-care research and social program evaluation. Consideration of the status of the program being assessed, its availability to, and its acceptance by the target audience leads to the derivation of four levels of health promotion program(More)
This article reviews 14 multivariate theories of experimental substance use (e.g., alcohol and marijuana use) among adolescents, including those theories that emphasize (a) substance-specific cognitions, (b) social learning processes, (c) commitment to conventional values and attachment to families, and (d) intrapersonal processes. Important similarities(More)
The entire early adolescent population of the 15 communities that constitute the Kansas City (Kansas and Missouri) metropolitan area has participated in a community-based program for prevention of drug abuse since September 1984. The Kansas City area is the first of two major metropolitan sites being evaluated in the Midwestern Prevention Project, a(More)
Many researchers have conceptualized smoking uptake behavior in adolescence as progressing through a sequence of developmental stages. Multiple social, psychological, and biological factors influence this process, and may play different functions at different points in the progression, and play different roles for different people. The major objective of(More)
Several approaches have been proposed to model binary outcomes that arise from longitudinal studies. Most of the approaches can be grouped into two classes: the population-averaged and subject-specific approaches. The generalized estimating equations (GEE) method is commonly used to estimate population-averaged effects, while random-effects logistic models(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the efficacy of 2 programs designed to reduce high-risk behaviors among inner-city African American youth. DESIGN Cluster randomized trial. SETTING Twelve metropolitan Chicago, Ill, schools and the communities they serve, 1994 through 1998. PARTICIPANTS Students in grades 5 through 8 and their parents and teachers. INTERVENTIONS(More)
Hundreds of studies have tested the efficacy or effectiveness of school curriculum-based (CB) substance use prevention programs. Over the years, various researchers have also tested programs that included school curricula, but with the addition of school environment, family, mass media, or community components. The purpose of this review is to determine the(More)
Smoking-related behaviors and attitudes of significant others (especially friends and parents) are among the most consistent predictors of adolescent smoking. However, theorists remain divided on whether the behaviors of significant others influence adolescent smoking directly or indirectly, and the relative influence of parental and peer smoking on(More)
BACKGROUND Current research on the etiology of cigarette smoking has largely focused on the identification of psychosocial predictors of tobacco onset. Few data are available on the predictors of different stages of smoking among adolescents. The present study examines the psychosocial predictors of different stages of smoking, including trial,(More)
This article reviews major risk factors for cigarette smoking, alcohol, and other drug abuse and promising community-based approaches to primary prevention. In a longitudinal experimental study, 8 representative Kansas City communities were assigned randomly to program (school, parent, mass media, and community organization) and control (mass media and(More)