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The stoichiometry and composition of membrane protein receptors are critical to their function. However, the inability to assess receptor subunit stoichiometry in situ has hampered efforts to relate receptor structures to functional states. Here, we address this problem for the asialoglycoprotein receptor using ensemble FRET imaging, analytical modeling,(More)
Specification of germline and somatic cell lineages in C. elegans originates in the polarized single-cell zygote. Several cell-fate determinants are partitioned unequally along the anterior-posterior axis of the zygote, ensuring the daughter cells a unique inheritance upon asymmetric cell division. Recent studies have revealed that partitioning of the(More)
To generate cellular diversity in developing organisms while simultaneously maintaining the developmental potential of the germline, germ cells must be able to preferentially endow germline daughter cells with a cytoplasmic portion containing specialized cell fate determinants not inherited by somatic cells. In Caenorhabditis elegans, germline inheritance(More)
Cells are not directly accessible in vivo and therefore their mechanical properties cannot be measured by methods that require a direct contact between probe and cell. Here, we introduce a novel in vivo assay based on particle tracking microrheology whereby the extent and time-lag dependence of the mean squared displacements of thermally excited(More)
Forces are important in biological systems for accomplishing key cell functions, such as motility, organelle transport, and cell division. Currently, known force generation mechanisms typically involve motor proteins. In bacterial cells, no known motor proteins are involved in cell division. Instead, a division ring (Z-ring) consists of mostly FtsZ, FtsA,(More)
Milk lipid is secreted by a unique process, during which triacylglycerol droplets bud from mammary cells coated with an outer bilayer of apical membrane. In all current schemes, the integral protein butyrophilin 1A1 (BTN) is postulated to serve as a transmembrane scaffold, which interacts either with itself or with the peripheral proteins, xanthine(More)
Despite the fundamental importance of diffusion for embryonic morphogen gradient formation in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo, there remains controversy regarding both the extent and the rate of diffusion of well-characterized morphogens. Furthermore, the recent observation of diffusional "compartmentalization" has suggested that diffusion may in(More)
Embryonic and adult fibroblasts can be returned to pluripotency by the expression of reprogramming genes. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that these human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells and human embryonic stem (hES) cells are behaviorally, karyotypically, and morphologically similar. Here we sought to determine whether the physical properties of(More)
We describe a new method to measure the local and global micromechanical properties of the cytoplasm of single living cells in their physiological milieu and subjected to external stimuli. By tracking spontaneous, Brownian movements of individual nanoparticles of diameter>or=100 nm distributed within the cell with high spatial and temporal resolutions, the(More)
The fusion of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with its host cell is the target for new antiretroviral therapies. Viral particles interact with the flexible plasma membrane via viral surface protein gp120 which binds its primary cellular receptor CD4 and subsequently the coreceptor CCR5. However, whether and how these receptors become(More)