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Essential tremor (ET) is a multi-faceted condition best known for postural and action tremor but also may include disordered gait and postural instability. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus provides substantial tremor reduction yet some patients with bilateral VIM DBS have gait and balance impairment.(More)
The topography of wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase/horseradish peroxidase-labeled mossy fiber terminals of lower thoracic-upper lumbar (T12-L3) spinal projections to the cerebellar anterior lobe was quantitatively analysed in adult rats. Computer-based image analysis mapped the orthogonal (parallel to the surface) distribution of labeled(More)
The results of 6 studies (involving 304 children) suggested that 4- and 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, understand that very recent past events determine the present. In Studies 1-3, 3- and 4-year-old children were introduced to 2 empty hiding locations. With children's backs to these locations, a camera recorded an experimenter secretly hiding a puppet(More)
Brainstem inferior olivary neurons, through their olivocerebellar efferent projections, dynamically regulate the structure and function of Purkinje neurons. To test the hypothesis that the inferior olive can epigenetically modify adult-onset hereditary Purkinje cell death, olivocerebellar projections were destroyed by 3-acetylpyridine chemoablation of the(More)
Neurotrophic factors GDNF and/or IGF-I were chronically infused into shaker mutant rats to rescue cerebellar Purkinje neurons from adult-onset heredodegeneration. The natural expression of the shaker mutation is characterized by spatially restricted degeneration of Purkinje cells that occurs earlier and faster in an anterior vermal compartment and slightly(More)
The requirement for cerebellar cortical neuronal activity in the development of spinocerebellar afferent topography was investigated in neonatal rats. In adult rats lower thoracic-upper lumbar spinocerebellar projections are localized to sharply circumscribed patches in the granule cell layer of the cerebellar anterior lobe. In transverse sections these(More)
A population of captive-reared wild Norway rats and two stocks of domestic rats were compared for various parameters of sexual maturation and fecundity. Males did not differ in age at the first appearance of spermatozoa in the testes but wild males were significantly older than Long--Evans and Sprague--Dawley domestic males at first copulation with a(More)
BACKGROUND Workplaces provide ideal environments for wellness programming. The purpose of this study was to explore exercise self-efficacy among university employees and the effects of a worksite wellness program on physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. METHODS Participants included 121 university(More)
Cerebellar Purkinje cells degenerate in shaker mutant rats. Glia cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was chronically infused intraventricularly in an attempt to rescue mutant Purkinje cells from dying. Four weeks of chronic GDNF infusion delayed the degeneration of many but not all Purkinje cells. Surviving Purkinje cells formed spatially related(More)
Females of many insect species cluster their eggs. Egg clustering by lepidopteran species usually results in aggregation of larvae that are more often conspicuously coloured and apparently distasteful or unpalatable than larvae of solitary species. While the costs and benefits of aggregation in terms of larval survival and growth are well documented, the(More)