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There is much interest in biogeochemical processes that occur at the interface between soils and streams since, at the scale of landscapes, these habitats may function as control points for fluxes of nitrogen (N) and other nutrients from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. Here we examine whether a thermodynamic perspective can enhance our mechanistic and(More)
Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B) has been implicated in the negative regulation of insulin signaling. Disruption of the mouse homolog of the gene encoding PTP-1B yielded healthy mice that, in the fed state, had blood glucose concentrations that were slightly lower and concentrations of circulating insulin that were one-half those of their PTP-1B+/+(More)
OBJECTIVE Significant new data suggest that metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis all posses an important inflammatory component. Infiltrating macrophages contribute to both tissue-specific and systemic inflammation, which promotes insulin resistance. The complement cascade is involved in the inflammatory cascade initiated by(More)
Type 2 diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide, and there has been a considerable effort in several laboratories to identify suitable targets for the design of drugs against the disease. To this end, the protein tyrosine phosphatases that attenuate insulin signaling by dephosphorylating the insulin receptor (IR) have been actively pursued. This(More)
The synovial fluid or group II secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) has been implicated in various inflammatory processes and has been shown to release arachidonic acid for prostaglandin biosynthesis. In human colorectal cancer, both arachidonic acid and eicosanoid levels are elevated. Recently, sPLA2 has been identified as a candidate gene that modifies the(More)
Mammalian atria contain peptides that promote the excretion of salt and water from the kidney. When rat atrial tissue is extracted under conditions known to inhibit proteolysis, four natriuretic peptides, cardionatrins I to IV, are consistently isolated. These peptides derive from a common precursor, preprocardionatrin, of 152 amino acids, whose sequence(More)
Recently there has been a resurgence of interest in the neuropsychological status of the alcoholic. The research documenting neuropsychological deficits has consistently shown impairments in abstract reasoning ability, visuospatial and visuomotor ability, and learning and memory skills. Despite these findings, it appears that many alcohol treatment(More)
Somatic growth is often used as a metric of habitat quality, but such an approach has limitations because growth results from complex interactions between abiotic and biotic factors. In this study, we derived estimates of weekly growth (based on otolith growth increments) across several months for four populations of threatened Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus(More)
Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the(More)
Human disturbances to ecosystems have created challenges to populations worldwide, forcing them to respond phenotypically in ways that increase their fitness under current conditions. One approach to examining population responses to disturbance in species with complex life histories is to study species that exhibit spatial patterns in their phenotypic(More)