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This study examined the relationship between orienting responses to novel events and subsequent exploratory behavior. The N2-P3 electrophysiologic component of the orienting response was found to be larger for novel than repetitive background stimuli. Across subjects, the amplitude of this N2-P3 response in frontal regions strongly predicted the(More)
Targeted transcript profiling studies can identify sets of co-expressed genes; however, identification of the underlying functional mechanism(s) is a significant challenge. Established methods for the analysis of gene annotations, particularly those based on the Gene Ontology, can identify functional linkages between genes. Similar methods for the(More)
There is much interest in biogeochemical processes that occur at the interface between soils and streams since, at the scale of landscapes, these habitats may function as control points for fluxes of nitrogen (N) and other nutrients from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. Here we examine whether a thermodynamic perspective can enhance our mechanistic and(More)
Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B) has been implicated in the negative regulation of insulin signaling. Disruption of the mouse homolog of the gene encoding PTP-1B yielded healthy mice that, in the fed state, had blood glucose concentrations that were slightly lower and concentrations of circulating insulin that were one-half those of their PTP-1B+/+(More)
OBJECTIVE Significant new data suggest that metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis all posses an important inflammatory component. Infiltrating macrophages contribute to both tissue-specific and systemic inflammation, which promotes insulin resistance. The complement cascade is involved in the inflammatory cascade initiated by(More)
This study examined demographic and adrenergic characteristics associated with enumerative immune responses to acute laboratory stress. Lymphocyte subsets and plasma catecholamines were measured in 110 subjects at rest and following a naturalistic speaking stressor. Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenergic receptor sensitivity and density were measured at rest. The(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of inequalities in income within a state on self rated health status while controlling for individual characteristics such as socioeconomic status. DESIGN Cross sectional multilevel study. Data were collected on income distribution in each of the 50 states in the United States. The Gini coefficient was used to measure(More)
Catestatin (bovine chromogranin A(344-364); RSMRLSFRARGYGFRGPGLQL), reduces catecholamine secretion from chromaffin cells in vitro. We investigated the effects of this peptide on catecholamine release and blood pressure in vivo. Intravenous catestatin reduced pressor responses to activation of sympathetic outflow by electrical stimulation in rats, and the(More)
The mechanism by which physostigmine exerts its behavioral, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular effects was explored in two separate experiments. In the first, the centrally-acting cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine was compared with the non-centrally-acting agent neostigmine. In contrast to physostigmine, neostigmine caused no effects. In the second(More)