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Targeted transcript profiling studies can identify sets of co-expressed genes; however, identification of the underlying functional mechanism(s) is a significant challenge. Established methods for the analysis of gene annotations, particularly those based on the Gene Ontology, can identify functional linkages between genes. Similar methods for the(More)
Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B) has been implicated in the negative regulation of insulin signaling. Disruption of the mouse homolog of the gene encoding PTP-1B yielded healthy mice that, in the fed state, had blood glucose concentrations that were slightly lower and concentrations of circulating insulin that were one-half those of their PTP-1B+/+(More)
Vanadate and pervanadate (the complexes of vanadate with hydrogen peroxide) are two commonly used general protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitors. These compounds also have insulin-mimetic properties, an observation that has generated a great deal of interest and study. Since a careful kinetic study of the two inhibitors has been lacking, we sought to(More)
The synovial fluid or group II secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) has been implicated as an important agent involved in a number of inflammatory processes. In an attempt to determine the role of sPLA2 in inflammation, we set out to generate sPLA2-deficient mice. During this investigation, we observed that in a number of inbred mouse strains, the sPLA2 gene(More)
Common obesity is primarily characterized by resistance to the actions of the hormone leptin. Mice deficient in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) are resistant to diabetes and diet-induced obesity, prompting us to further define the relationship between PTP1B and leptin in modulating obesity. Leptin-deficient (Lep(ob/ob)) mice lacking PTP1B exhibit an(More)
The physiological basis for the striking decrease of attention to novel events following frontal lobe injury is poorly understood. In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from patients with frontal lobe damage and matched subjects, who controlled the duration of viewing of background, novel and target stimuli. Frontal lobe patients did(More)
There is much interest in biogeochemical processes that occur at the interface between soils and streams since, at the scale of landscapes, these habitats may function as control points for fluxes of nitrogen (N) and other nutrients from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. Here we examine whether a thermodynamic perspective can enhance our mechanistic and(More)
The secretory prohormone chromogranin A (CHGA) is overexpressed in essential hypertension, a complex trait with genetic predisposition, while its catecholamine release-inhibitory fragment catestatin is diminished, and low catestatin predicts augmented adrenergic pressor responses. These findings from studies on humans suggest a mechanism whereby diminished(More)
The discoveries that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is an inducible form of COX involved in inflammation and that COX-1 is the major isoform responsible for the production of prostaglandins (PGs) in the gastrointestinal tract have provided a rationale for the development of specific COX-2 inhibitors as a new class of anti-inflammatory agents with improved(More)
This study examined the relationship between orienting responses to novel events and subsequent exploratory behavior. The N2-P3 electrophysiologic component of the orienting response was found to be larger for novel than repetitive background stimuli. Across subjects, the amplitude of this N2-P3 response in frontal regions strongly predicted the(More)