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Chromatin on the mammalian inactive X chromosome differs in a number of ways from that on the active X. One protein, macroH2A, whose amino terminus is closely related to histone H2A, is enriched on the heterochromatic inactive X chromosome in female cells. Here, we report the identification and localization of a novel and more distant histone variant,(More)
Macrosatellite DNA is composed of large repeat units, arranged in tandem over hundreds of kilobases. The macrosatellite repeat DXZ4, localized at Xq23-24, consists of 50-100 copies of a CpG-rich 3-kb monomer. Here I report that on the active X chromosome (Xa), DXZ4 is organized into constitutive heterochromatin characterized by a highly organized pattern of(More)
The X-linked macrosatellite DXZ4 is a large homogenous tandem repeat that in females adopts an alternative chromatin organization on the primate X chromosome in response to X-chromosome inactivation. It is packaged into heterochromatin on the active X chromosome but into euchromatin and bound by the epigenetic organizer protein CTCF on the inactive X(More)
Heterochromatin is defined classically by condensation throughout the cell cycle, replication in late S phase and gene inactivity. Facultative heterochromatin is of particular interest, because its formation is developmentally regulated as a result of cellular differentiation. The most extensive example of facultative heterochromatin is the mammalian(More)
MacroH2A1 is an unusual variant of the core histone H2A which is enriched in chromatin on the inactive X chromosome of female mammals. The N-terminal third of the protein shares 65% amino acid identity with core histone H2A, while the remaining two-thirds of the protein are novel, with a small stretch of basic amino acids and a putative leucine zipper(More)
Histone variants are non-allelic protein isoforms that play key roles in diversifying chromatin structure. The known number of such variants has greatly increased in recent years, but the lack of naming conventions for them has led to a variety of naming styles, multiple synonyms and misleading homographs that obscure variant relationships and complicate(More)
Knockdown of the insulator factor CCCTC binding factor (CTCF), which binds XL9, an intergenic element located between HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQA1, was found to diminish expression of these genes. The mechanism involved interactions between CTCF and class II transactivator (CIITA), the master regulator of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) gene(More)
The human lymphoid cell activation antigen CD39 is a known E-type apyrase that hydrolyzes extracellular ATP and ADP, a function important in homotypic adhesion, platelet aggregation, and removal by activated lymphocytes of the lytic effect of ATP. The recently identified putative rat homologue of CD39L1 has been shown to have E-type ecto-ATPase activity, by(More)
Using the technique of amplified restriction fragment polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, and bulked segregant pools from F2 progeny of the cross Lycopersicon esculentum (Cf9) x L. pennellii, approximately 42,000 AFLP loci for tight linkage to the tomato Cf-9 gene for resistance to Cladosporium fulvum have been screened. Analysis of F2 recombinants identified(More)
The human X-linked macrosatellite DXZ4 is a large tandem repeat located at Xq23 that is packaged into heterochromatin on the male X chromosome and female active X chromosome and, in response to X chromosome, inactivation is organized into euchromatin bound by the insulator protein CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) on the inactive X chromosome (Xi). The purpose(More)