Brian P. Chadwick

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Familial dysautonomia (FD; also known as "Riley-Day syndrome"), an Ashkenazi Jewish disorder, is the best known and most frequent of a group of congenital sensory neuropathies and is characterized by widespread sensory and variable autonomic dysfunction. Previously, we had mapped the FD gene, DYS, to a 0.5-cM region on chromosome 9q31 and had shown that the(More)
Heterochromatin is defined classically by condensation throughout the cell cycle, replication in late S phase and gene inactivity. Facultative heterochromatin is of particular interest, because its formation is developmentally regulated as a result of cellular differentiation. The most extensive example of facultative heterochromatin is the mammalian(More)
Chromatin on the mammalian inactive X chromosome differs in a number of ways from that on the active X. One protein, macroH2A, whose amino terminus is closely related to histone H2A, is enriched on the heterochromatic inactive X chromosome in female cells. Here, we report the identification and localization of a novel and more distant histone variant,(More)
Histone modifications are thought to serve as epigenetic markers that mediate dynamic changes in chromatin structure and regulation of gene expression. As a model system for understanding epigenetic silencing, X chromosome inactivation has been previously linked to a number of histone modifications including methylation and hypoacetylation. In this study,(More)
Knockdown of the insulator factor CCCTC binding factor (CTCF), which binds XL9, an intergenic element located between HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQA1, was found to diminish expression of these genes. The mechanism involved interactions between CTCF and class II transactivator (CIITA), the master regulator of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) gene(More)
MacroH2A1 is an unusual variant of the core histone H2A which is enriched in chromatin on the inactive X chromosome of female mammals. The N-terminal third of the protein shares 65% amino acid identity with core histone H2A, while the remaining two-thirds of the protein are novel, with a small stretch of basic amino acids and a putative leucine zipper(More)
Macrosatellite DNA is composed of large repeat units, arranged in tandem over hundreds of kilobases. The macrosatellite repeat DXZ4, localized at Xq23-24, consists of 50-100 copies of a CpG-rich 3-kb monomer. Here I report that on the active X chromosome (Xa), DXZ4 is organized into constitutive heterochromatin characterized by a highly organized pattern of(More)
The human X-linked macrosatellite DXZ4 is a large tandem repeat located at Xq23 that is packaged into heterochromatin on the male X chromosome and female active X chromosome and, in response to X chromosome, inactivation is organized into euchromatin bound by the insulator protein CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) on the inactive X chromosome (Xi). The purpose(More)
The Barr body has long been recognized as the cytological manifestation of the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in interphase nuclei. Despite being known for over 50 years, relatively few components of the Barr body have been identified. In this study, we have screened over 30 histone variants, modified histones and non-histone proteins for their association with(More)
The human lymphoid cell activation antigen CD39 is a known E-type apyrase that hydrolyzes extracellular ATP and ADP, a function important in homotypic adhesion, platelet aggregation, and removal by activated lymphocytes of the lytic effect of ATP. The recently identified putative rat homologue of CD39L1 has been shown to have E-type ecto-ATPase activity, by(More)