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BACKGROUND Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use is associated with psychiatric symptoms including increased aggression as well as with cognitive dysfunction. The brain effects of long-term AAS use have not been assessed in humans. METHODS This multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain compared 10 male weightlifters reporting long-term AAS(More)
Glutamatergic abnormalities may underlie bipolar disorder (BD). The glutamate-modulating drug riluzole may be efficacious in bipolar depression, but few in vivo studies have examined its effect on glutamatergic neurotransmission. We conducted an exploratory study of the effect of riluzole on brain glutamine/glutamate (Gln/Glu) ratios and levels of(More)
OBJECTIVES Bipolar patients frequently relapse within 12 months of their previous mood episode, even in the context of adequate treatment, suggesting that better continuation and maintenance treatments are needed. Based on recent research of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, we review the evidence for mitochondrial dysregulation and selected(More)
Functional neuroimaging studies have converged to suggest that cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit dysfunction is a core pathophysiologic feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Now, complementary approaches examining regional neurochemistry are beginning to yield additional insights with regard to the neurobiology of aberrant CSTC(More)
BACKGROUND Bipolar disorder may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, agents that enhance mitochondrial functioning may be efficacious in bipolar disorder. We performed a randomized placebo-controlled trial of the mitochondrial enhancers acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) and α-lipoic acid (ALA) in patients with bipolar depression, and assessed(More)
Exogenous testosterone therapy has psychotropic effects and has been proposed as an antidepressant augmentation strategy for depressed men. We sought to assess the antidepressant effects of testosterone augmentation of a serotonergic antidepressant in depressed, hypogonadal men. For this study, we recruited 100 medically healthy adult men with major(More)
The anterior cingulate cortex is implicated in the neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have examined functional and neurochemical abnormalities specifically in the rostral subdivision of the ACC (rACC) in OCD patients. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an emotional counting Stroop task and(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of duloxetine for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS We conducted an open-label 12-week trial of duloxetine 60 mg daily in 15 patients with IBS without concurrent major depressive disorder. The primary outcome measure was average abdominal pain. Secondary measures included IBS symptoms, Clinical Global(More)
BACKGROUND Intensive residential treatment (IRT) is effective for severe, treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We sought to characterize predictors and course of response to IRT. METHODS Admission, monthly, and discharge data were collected on individuals receiving IRT. We examined the association between baseline characteristics and(More)
BACKGROUND Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that lower cerebral levels of glutathione (GSH), associated with increased oxidative stress, may contribute to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, no studies to date have investigated brain GSH levels in individuals with OCD. METHODS Twenty-nine individuals with OCD and 25 age-, sex-,(More)
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