Brian N Wroble

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Early Xenopus laevis embryos possess cell cycles that do not arrest at checkpoints in response to damaged DNA. At the midblastula transition (MBT), embryos with damaged DNA undergo apoptosis. After the MBT, DNA damage triggers cell cycle arrest rather than apoptosis. The transition from checkpoint-unregulated to checkpoint-regulated cycles makes Xenopus(More)
The role of cyclin-dependent kinases in cell proliferation is well characterized, whereas their somewhat paradoxical role in catalyzing apoptosis is less understood. One Cdk complex implicated in both cell proliferation and cell death is cyclin A/Cdk2. During early embryonic development of Xenopus laevis, distinct isoforms of cyclin A are expressed at(More)
Collateral spread of apoptosis to nearby cells is referred to as the bystander effect, a process that is integral to tissue homeostasis and a challenge to anticancer therapies. In many systems, apoptosis relies on permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane to factors such as cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO. This permeabilization occurs via formation(More)
Cell cycle checkpoints that are engaged in response to damaged and unreplicated DNA may serve additional, constitutive functions. In the developing Xenopus laevis embryo, the checkpoint kinase Chk1 is transiently activated at the midblastula transition (MBT), a period of extensive cell cycle remodeling including the acquisition of cell cycle checkpoints.(More)
The microinjection of mRNA that is transcribed and capped in vitro into fertilized eggs and embryos of Xenopus laevis provides a powerful means for discovering the function of proteins during early development. Proteins may be overexpressed for a gain-of-function effect or exogenous protein function may be compromised by the microinjection of mRNA encoding(More)
The cell cycles of the Xenopus laevis embryo undergo extensive remodeling beginning at the midblastula transition (MBT) of early development. Cell divisions 2–12 consist of rapid cleavages without gap phases or cell cycle checkpoints. Some remodeling events depend upon a critical nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, whereas others rely on a maternal timer controlled(More)
Studies in several model systems, including Xenopus laevis oocytes and embryos, have indicated that the checkpoint kinase, Chk1, is required for early development, even in the absence of damaged or unreplicated DNA. Chk1 is transiently activated at the midblastula transition (MBT) in Xenopus, a time when the cell cycle remodels from rapid embryonic cleavage(More)
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