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Viruses preserved in ancient materials provide snapshots of past viral diversity and a means to trace viral evolution through time. Here, we use a metagenomics approach to identify filterable and nuclease-resistant nucleic acids preserved in 700-y-old caribou feces frozen in a permanent ice patch. We were able to recover and characterize two viruses in(More)
Interferograms were generated from 10 TerraSAR-X image pairs, with the objective of obtaining estimates of winter surface motion for a slow-moving polythermal arctic glacier. Flow directions were computed using both ascending and descending-pass interferograms for each period, with the median value being adopted as the final direction. The weighted average(More)
Measurements of surface displacement made using GPS, SAR interferometry, and ground-based photogrammetry were compared for a number of targets located close to the terminus of a polythermal arctic glacier. The results showed that average measurements for the winter period made using GPS and SAR interferometry agreed well at most locations. Horizontal and(More)
Introduction: Since the early flyby missions of the 1960s, the study of Mars has largely focused on the discovery of exploitable water for future manned missions. Data generated by the Mars Odyssey neutron and gamma-ray spectrometers indicate large reservoirs of hydrogen (possibly H 2 O ice) in the near-surface of Mars at latitudes greater than 50° [1],(More)
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