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In 1989, Manning, Patel, and Borchardt wrote a review of protein stability (Manning et al., Pharm. Res. 6:903–918, 1989), which has been widely referenced ever since. At the time, recombinant protein therapy was still in its infancy. This review summarizes the advances that have been made since then regarding protein stabilization and formulation. In(More)
Covalent attachment of poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) groups to proteins, a process commonly called PEGylation, is often used to improve the performance of a protein in vivo. To date, at least eight such PEGylated peptide and protein conjugates have been approved as therapeutic agents and many more have undergone clinical trials. This review examines(More)
Better understanding of protein higher order structures (HOS) is of major interest to researchers in the field of biotechnology and biopharmaceutics. Monitoring a protein's HOS is crucial towards understanding the impact of molecular conformation on the biotechnological application. In addition, maintaining the HOS is critical for achieving robust processes(More)
* = pH determined via buffered colorimetric indicator solution placed in each vessel. ** = Seal is accomplished through an press fit between the cap and body. BG = borosilicate glass PT = polyethylene terephthalate MF = melamine formaldehyde SB = styrene-­‐butadiene rubber PE = polyethylene (high density) SL = silicone rubber PF = phenol formaldehyde TF =(More)
Immunoassays represent a core workhorse methodology for many applications ranging from clinical diagnostics to environmental monitoring. In traditional formats such as the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), analytes are measured singly or in small sets. As more biomarkers are identified for disease states, there is a need to develop methods that can(More)
Biomarkers provide clinicians with an important tool for disease assessment. Many different biomarkers have been discovered, but few of them suffice as stand-alone indicators for disease presence or prognosis. Because no single biomarker can be relied upon for accurate disease detection there has been a substantial push for new multianalyte screening(More)
New high-throughput immunoassay methods for rapid point-of-care diagnostic applications represent an unmet need and current focus of numerous innovative methods. We report a new micromosaic competitive immunoassay developed for the analysis of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4), inflammation biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP), and the oxidative damage(More)
There are many aspects of stabilization of lyophilized proteins. Of these various factors, retention of native structure, having sufficient amount of stabilizer to embed the protein within an amorphous matrix, and dampening β-relaxations have been shown to be critical in optimizing protein stability during storage. In this study, an IgG1 was lyophilized(More)
The crystal structures of [Cu(bipy)(3)][BPh(4)](2), 1, and [Zn(bipy)(3)][BPh(4)](2), have been determined at low temperature. 1 and 2 are closely related, but are not isostructural. Both contain a two-dimensional supramolecular construct (SC) involving a sandwich structure. 1 has a six-coordinate CuN(6) chromophore with a regular elongated octahedral(More)
Comparing higher order structure (HOS) in therapeutic proteins is a significant challenge. Previously, we showed that changes in solution conditions produced detectable changes in the second-derivative amide I Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra for a variety of model proteins. Those comparisons utilized vector-based approaches, such as spectral(More)