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Bacterial endophytes reside within the interior of plants without causing disease or forming symbiotic structures. Some endophytes, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 (Kp342), enhance plant growth and nutrition. Others, such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium), are human pathogens that contaminate raw produce. Several lines of(More)
The presence of human-pathogenic, enteric bacteria on the surface and in the interior of raw produce is a significant health concern. Several aspects of the biology of the interaction between these bacteria and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seedlings are addressed here. A collection of enteric bacteria associated with alfalfa sprout contaminations, along with(More)
BACKGROUND LuxR-type transcription factors are typically used by bacteria to determine the population density of their own species by detecting N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). However, while Escherichia and Salmonella encode a LuxR-type AHL receptor, SdiA, they cannot synthesize AHLs. In vitro, it is known that SdiA can detect AHLs produced by other(More)
Childhood malaria is a risk factor for disseminated infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) in sub-Saharan Africa. While hemolytic anemia and an altered cytokine environment have been implicated in increased susceptibility to NTS, it is not known whether malaria affects resistance to intestinal colonization with NTS. To address this question, we(More)
Only certain serotypes of Salmonella represent 99% of all human clinical isolates. We determined whether the phylogenetic distribution of fimbrial operons would account for the host adaptations observed for Salmonella serotypes. We found that three fimbrial operons, fim, lpf, and agf, were present in a lineage ancestral to Salmonella. While the fim and agf(More)
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella) is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens affecting both humans and agriculture. We have determined that Salmonella encodes an uptake and utilization pathway specific for a novel nutrient, fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), which is essential for Salmonella fitness in the inflamed intestine (modeled(More)
Most isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium contain a 90-kb virulence plasmid. This plasmid is reported to be mobilizable but nonconjugative. However, we have determined that the virulence plasmid of strains LT2, 14028, and SR-11 is indeed self-transmissible. The plasmid of strain SL1344 is not. Optimal conjugation frequency requires filter(More)
Salmonella spp. are major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Upon entry into the human host, Salmonella spp. must overcome the resistance to colonization mediated by the gut microbiota and the innate immune system. They successfully accomplish this by inducing inflammation and mechanisms of innate immune defense. Many models have been(More)
The contribution of a gene to the fitness of a bacterium can be assayed by whether and to what degree the bacterium tolerates transposon insertions in that gene. We use this fact to compare the fitness of syntenic homologous genes among related Salmonella strains and thereby reveal differences not apparent at the gene sequence level. A transposon Tn5(More)
TonB protein appears to couple the electrochemical potential of the cytoplasmic membrane to active transport across the essentially unenergized outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. ExbB protein has been identified as an auxiliary protein in this process. In this paper we show that ExbD protein, encoded by an adjacent gene in the exb cluster at 65', was(More)