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Cognitive dysfunction in type 1 and type 2 diabetes share many similarities, but important differences do exist. A primary distinguishing feature of type 2 diabetes is that people with this disorder often (but not invariably) do poorly on measures of learning and memory, whereas deficits in these domains are rarely seen in people with type 1 diabetes.(More)
OBJECTIVE Acute hypoglycemia in humans impairs cognitive functions and alters mood states. The time required for cognitive functions and moods to return to normal after an acute episode of severe hypoglycemia is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cognitive functions and moods were studied prospectively in 20 subjects with insulin-treated diabetes who(More)
Acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia impairs performance on tests of general mental ability in humans. It is recognized that different brain functions vary in their sensitivity to neuroglycopenia, but little is known about the effects of neuroglycopenia on specific brain processes. The effect of controlled hypoglycaemia on two aspects of auditory information(More)
The human brain is almost totally dependent on a continuous supply of glucose, deprivation of which rapidly causes malfunction. In the brain there are regional differences in the susceptibility to neuroglycopenia with the cerebral cortex being most sensitive while deeper structures are more resistant. A fall in blood glucose provokes a hierarchy of(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether circulating levels of the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are associated with cognitive ability and estimated lifetime cognitive decline in an elderly population with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A cross-sectional study of 1,066 men and(More)
The epsilon4 allele of the apolipoprotein-E (APOE) gene is associated with poor outcome following various cerebral insults. The relationship between APOE genotype and cognitive function in patients with type 1 diabetes is unknown. In a cross-sectional study of 96 people with type 1 diabetes, subjects were APOE genotyped, previous exposure to severe(More)
A general impairment of cognitive performance occurs during acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, but little objective evidence is available for disruption of more specific cognitive processes. The effect of controlled hypoglycaemia on the early stages of visual information processing and contrast sensitivity was examined in a homogeneous group of 20(More)
A lthough hypoglycemia is the most common side effect of insulin therapy in diabetes and its morbidity is well known, for many years, the potentially life-threatening effects of hypogly-cemia on the cardiovascular (CV) system have either been overlooked or have been dismissed as inconsequential to people with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. This scenario(More)
OBJECTIVE Previous research has demonstrated that hypoglycemia causes reaction times to be slower and more variable. Reaction time tests, however, use multiple cognitive and noncognitive processes. This study is the first to use a validated sequential sampling model (diffusion model) applied to results obtained from a simple 2-choice task in adult humans to(More)
OBJECTIVE Cerebral microvascular disease associated with type 2 diabetes may exacerbate the effects of aging on cognitive function. A considerable homology exists between the retinal and cerebral microcirculations; a hypothesized association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and cognitive decline was examined in older people with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH(More)