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Hibernating arctic ground squirrels, Spermophilus parryii, were able to adopt and spontaneously arouse from core body temperatures as low as -2.9 degrees C without freezing. Abdominal body temperatures of ground squirrels hibernating in outdoor burrows were recorded with temperature-sensitive radiotransmitter implants. Body temperatures and soil(More)
Black bears hibernate for 5 to 7 months a year and, during this time, do not eat, drink, urinate, or defecate. We measured metabolic rate and body temperature in hibernating black bears and found that they suppress metabolism to 25% of basal rates while regulating body temperature from 30° to 36°C, in multiday cycles. Heart rates were reduced from 55 to as(More)
Arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) overwinter in hibernaculum conditions that are substantially below freezing. During torpor, captive arctic ground squirrels displayed ambient temperature (T(a))-dependent patterns of core body temperature (T(b)), metabolic rate (TMR), and metabolic fuel use, as determined by respiratory quotient (RQ). At T(a) 0(More)
Torpor during hibernation defines the nadir of mammalian metabolism where whole animal rates of metabolism are decreased to as low as 2% of basal metabolic rate. This capacity to decrease profoundly the metabolic demand of organs and tissues has the potential to translate into novel therapies for the treatment of ischemia associated with stroke, cardiac(More)
Prior to this study, antifreeze proteins (AFPs) had not been identified in terrestrial arthropods from the Arctic or anywhere in Alaska. The hemolymph of 75 species of insects and six spiders from interior and arctic Alaska were screened for thermal hysteresis (a difference between the freezing and melting points), characteristic of the presence of AFPs.(More)
We conducted a large-scale gene expression screen using the 3,200 cDNA probe microarray developed specifically for Ursus americanus to detect expression differences in liver and skeletal muscle that occur during winter hibernation compared with animals sampled during summer. The expression of 12 genes, including RNA binding protein motif 3 (Rbm3), that are(More)
Arctic ground squirrels overwintering in northern Alaska experience average soil temperature of -10 degrees C. To examine energetic costs of arousing from hibernation under arctic compared to temperate conditions, captive ground squirrels were maintained in ambient temperatures (T(a)) of 2, -5 and -12 degrees C. Rates of oxygen consumption and carbon(More)
Hypothermia during mammalian hibernation is periodically interrupted by arousals to euthermy, the function of which is unknown. We report that arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) consistently sleep during these arousals, and that their EEG shows the decrease in slow wave activity (delta power) that is characteristic of a declining requirement for(More)
Mammalian hibernators display phenotypes similar to physiological responses to calorie restriction and fasting, sleep, cold exposure, and ischemia-reperfusion in non-hibernating species. Whether biochemical changes evident during hibernation have parallels in non-hibernating systems on molecular and genetic levels is unclear. We identified the molecular(More)
We performed a broadscale screening of differential gene expression using both high-throughput bead-array technology and real-time PCR assay in brown adipose tissue, liver, heart, hypothalamus, and skeletal muscle in hibernating arctic ground squirrels, comparing animals sampled after two durations of steady-state torpor, during two stages of spontaneous(More)