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Arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) overwinter in hibernaculum conditions that are substantially below freezing. During torpor, captive arctic ground squirrels displayed ambient temperature (T(a))-dependent patterns of core body temperature (T(b)), metabolic rate (TMR), and metabolic fuel use, as determined by respiratory quotient (RQ). At T(a) 0(More)
Black bears hibernate for 5 to 7 months a year and, during this time, do not eat, drink, urinate, or defecate. We measured metabolic rate and body temperature in hibernating black bears and found that they suppress metabolism to 25% of basal rates while regulating body temperature from 30° to 36°C, in multiday cycles. Heart rates were reduced from 55 to as(More)
Ground squirrels undergo extreme body temperature fluctuations during hibernation. The effect of low body temperatures on the mammalian circadian system is still under debate. Using implanted temperature loggers, we recorded body temperature patterns in European ground squirrels kept in an enclosure under natural conditions. Although hibernation onset was(More)
Hibernating arctic ground squirrels, Spermophilus parryii, were able to adopt and spontaneously arouse from core body temperatures as low as -2.9 degrees C without freezing. Abdominal body temperatures of ground squirrels hibernating in outdoor burrows were recorded with temperature-sensitive radiotransmitter implants. Body temperatures and soil(More)
Arctic ground squirrels overwintering in northern Alaska experience average soil temperature of -10 degrees C. To examine energetic costs of arousing from hibernation under arctic compared to temperate conditions, captive ground squirrels were maintained in ambient temperatures (T(a)) of 2, -5 and -12 degrees C. Rates of oxygen consumption and carbon(More)
Precise measures of phenology are critical to understanding how animals organize their annual cycles and how individuals and populations respond to climate-induced changes in physical and ecological stressors. We show that patterns of core body temperature (T (b)) can be used to precisely determine the timing of key seasonal events(More)
Hypothermia during mammalian hibernation is periodically interrupted by arousals to euthermy, the function of which is unknown. We report that arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) consistently sleep during these arousals, and that their EEG shows the decrease in slow wave activity (delta power) that is characteristic of a declining requirement for(More)
Mammalian hibernators display phenotypes similar to physiological responses to calorie restriction and fasting, sleep, cold exposure, and ischemia-reperfusion in non-hibernating species. Whether biochemical changes evident during hibernation have parallels in non-hibernating systems on molecular and genetic levels is unclear. We identified the molecular(More)
Torpor during hibernation defines the nadir of mammalian metabolism where whole animal rates of metabolism are decreased to as low as 2% of basal metabolic rate. This capacity to decrease profoundly the metabolic demand of organs and tissues has the potential to translate into novel therapies for the treatment of ischemia associated with stroke, cardiac(More)
We conducted a large-scale gene expression screen using the 3,200 cDNA probe microarray developed specifically for Ursus americanus to detect expression differences in liver and skeletal muscle that occur during winter hibernation compared with animals sampled during summer. The expression of 12 genes, including RNA binding protein motif 3 (Rbm3), that are(More)