Brian Leonard

Learn More
The olfactory bulbectomized (OB) rat has been proposed as an animal model of depression. The following behavioural changes have been observed following bilateral olfactory bulbectomy: hyperactivity in an enclosed arena, such as the open-field; enhanced nocturnal hyperactivity in a 24-hr home cage activity monitor; deficits in memory, as shown by passive(More)
Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy results in changes in behavior, and in the endocrine, immune and neurotransmitter systems, that simulates many of those seen in patients with major depression. The olfactory system in the rat forms a part of the limbic region in which the amygdala and hippocampus contribute to the emotional and memory components of behavior.(More)
This paper reviews the body of evidence that not only tryptophan and consequent 5-HT depletion, but also induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and the detrimental effects of tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs) play a role in the pathophysiology of depression. IDO is induced by interferon (IFN)γ, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α,(More)
This paper reviews that cell-mediated-immune (CMI) activation and inflammation contribute to depressive symptoms, including anhedonia; anxiety-like behaviors; fatigue and somatic symptoms, e.g. illness behavior or malaise; and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). These effects are in part mediated by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), e.g.(More)
Traditionally, both stress and depression have been associated with impaired immune function and increased susceptibility to infectious and neoplastic disease. However over the last number of years a large body of evidence suggests that major depression is associated with signs of immunological activation. Moreover it has been suggested that cytokine(More)
Since its first characterization as a model for the detection of antidepressant drugs (van Riezen et al., 1976) a large body of data now supports the view that olfactory bulbectomy produces changes in animal behavior that are reversed by chronic treatment with antidepressants. The behavioral deficits seen in olfactory bulbectomized rats (such as(More)
A reduction in core body temperature is one of the characteristic consequences of 5-HT1A receptor activation in rodents. In this study, we characterized the hypothermic effects of four 5-HT1A receptor ligands with varying affinity and selectivity at the 5-HT1A receptor. 8-OH-DPAT and flesinoxan (full agonists); ipsapirone (selective partial agonist) and(More)
Chronic stress, by initiating changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the immune system, acts as a trigger for anxiety and depression. Both experimental and clinical evidence shows that a rise in the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids, as occurs in chronically stressful situations and in depression, contribute to(More)
In the present study we observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration provoked a characteristic reduction in body weight gain, food consumption, saccharin (but not water) consumption and nocturnal locomotor activity. It has been previously suggested that the ability of LPS to suppress the consumption of, and preference for, a palatable solution such(More)