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Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy results in changes in behavior, and in the endocrine, immune and neurotransmitter systems, that simulates many of those seen in patients with major depression. The olfactory system in the rat forms a part of the limbic region in which the amygdala and hippocampus contribute to the emotional and memory components of behavior.(More)
This paper reviews the body of evidence that not only tryptophan and consequent 5-HT depletion, but also induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and the detrimental effects of tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs) play a role in the pathophysiology of depression. IDO is induced by interferon (IFN)γ, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α,(More)
The olfactory bulbectomized (OB) rat has been proposed as an animal model of depression. The following behavioural changes have been observed following bilateral olfactory bulbectomy: hyperactivity in an enclosed arena, such as the open-field; enhanced nocturnal hyperactivity in a 24-hr home cage activity monitor; deficits in memory, as shown by passive(More)
It is of considerable translational importance whether depression is a form or a consequence of sickness behavior. Sickness behavior is a behavioral complex induced by infections and immune trauma and mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is an adaptive response that enhances recovery by conserving energy to combat acute inflammation. There are(More)
Chronic inflammation is now considered to be central to the pathogenesis not only of such medical disorders as cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, diabetes and cancer but also of major depression. If chronic inflammatory changes are a common feature of depression, this could predispose depressed patients to neurodegenerative changes in later life.(More)
Since its first characterization as a model for the detection of antidepressant drugs (van Riezen et al., 1976) a large body of data now supports the view that olfactory bulbectomy produces changes in animal behavior that are reversed by chronic treatment with antidepressants. The behavioral deficits seen in olfactory bulbectomized rats (such as(More)
The effects of D-fenfluramine on core body temperature has been largely investigated under conditions of either high or low ambient temperature, whereas little research has focused on this response under normal environmental conditions. Moreover, there has been neglect in research on the mechanisms underlying changes in body temperature. In this study, we(More)
There is clinical and experimental evidence that various aspects of the immune and endocrine systems are severely compromised in chronic stress and depression. For example, it has been shown that a reduced lymphocyte response occurs to mitogens in depressed patients, effects that are not reversed by chronic antidepressant treatment. By contrast, monocyte(More)
It has been reported that the balance between T-helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines and T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines plays a role in psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder. The T-helper type 3 (Th3) cytokine, which transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1), has been shown to modulate the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. However, the role of(More)
The activity of dizocilpine (MK-801; 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) administered once daily intraperitoneally (I.P.) was assessed in the olfactory bulbectomized rat model of depression. Olfactory bulbectomy (OB) is associated with a variety of behavioural abnormalities, such as hyperactivity in the "open field" test. Previous studies have shown that chronic(More)