Learn More
B-RAF is the most frequently mutated protein kinase in human cancers. The finding that oncogenic mutations in BRAF are common in melanoma, followed by the demonstration that these tumours are dependent on the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, offered hope that inhibition of B-RAF kinase activity could benefit melanoma patients. Herein, we describe the structure-guided(More)
The colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) is a key regulator of myeloid lineage cells. Genetic loss of the CSF1R blocks the normal population of resident microglia in the brain that originates from the yolk sac during early development. However, the role of CSF1R signaling in microglial homeostasis in the adult brain is largely unknown. To this end,(More)
UNLABELLED Immune-regulated pathways influence multiple aspects of cancer development. In this article we demonstrate that both macrophage abundance and T-cell abundance in breast cancer represent prognostic indicators for recurrence-free and overall survival. We provide evidence that response to chemotherapy is in part regulated by these leukocytes;(More)
BRAF(V600E) is the most frequent oncogenic protein kinase mutation known. Furthermore, inhibitors targeting "active" protein kinases have demonstrated significant utility in the therapeutic repertoire against cancer. Therefore, we pursued the development of specific kinase inhibitors targeting B-Raf, and the V600E allele in particular. By using a(More)
A method for isolation of large, translationally active RNA species is presented. The procedure involves homogenization of cells or tissues in 5 M guanidine monothiocyanate followed by direct precipitation of RNA from the guanidinium by 4 M LiCl. Modifications are described for use with tissue culture cells, yeast, tissues, or isolated nuclei. The(More)
The ligand-binding domain of nuclear receptors contains a transcriptional activation function (AF-2) that mediates hormone-dependent binding of coactivator proteins. Scanning surface mutagenesis on the human thyroid hormone receptor was performed to define the site that binds the coactivators, glucocorticoid receptor-interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) and(More)
The crystal structure of the rat alpha 1 thyroid hormone receptor ligand-binding domain bound with a thyroid hormone agonist reveals that ligand is completely buried within the domain as part of the hydrophobic core. In addition, the carboxy-terminal activation domain forms an amphipathic helix, with its hydrophobic face constituting part of the hormone(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme is a deadly cancer for which current treatment options are limited. The ability of glioblastoma tumor cells to infiltrate the surrounding brain parenchyma critically limits the effectiveness of current treatments. We investigated how microglia, the resident macrophages of the brain, stimulate glioblastoma cell invasion. We first(More)
Residues of the TR that are critical for binding the nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR) were identified by testing more than 100 separate mutations of the full-length human TRbeta that scan the surface of its ligand binding domain. The primary inferred interaction surface overlaps the surface described for binding of p160 coactivators, but differs by(More)
Separate genes encode thyroid hormone receptor subtypes TRalpha (NR1A1) and TRbeta (NR1A2). Products from each of these contribute to hormone action, but the subtypes differ in tissue distribution and physiological response. Compounds that discriminate between these subtypes in vivo may be useful in treating important medical problems such as obesity and(More)