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CONTEXT Hospital computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems are widely regarded as the technical solution to medication ordering errors, the largest identified source of preventable hospital medical error. Published studies report that CPOE reduces medication errors up to 81%. Few researchers, however, have focused on the existence or types of(More)
OBJECTIVE Some preclinical in vivo studies and limited human data suggest a possible increased risk of bladder cancer with pioglitazone therapy. This is an interim report of an ongoing cohort study examining the association between pioglitazone therapy and the risk of bladder cancer in patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore whether treatment with pioglitazone was associated with risk of incident cancer at the 10 most common sites (prostate, female breast, lung/bronchus, endometrial, colon, non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL], pancreas, kidney/renal pelvis, rectal, and melanoma). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A cohort study of 252,467 patients aged ≥40 years from(More)
INTRODUCTION The involvement of vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is a key mediator in the vitamin D pathway, in breast cancer etiology has long been of interest. METHODS We examined the association between polymorphisms in the 3' end of the VDR gene, specifically BsmI and Poly(A), and breast cancer risk within a large, population-based, case-control study(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether a rule-based algorithm applied to an outpatient electronic medical record (EMR) can identify patients who are pregnant and prescribed medications proved to cause birth defects. DESIGN A descriptive study using the University of Pennsylvania Health System outpatient EMR to simulate a prospective algorithm to identify(More)
Studies of patient safety and comparative effectiveness entail unique methodologic challenges. These studies may be susceptible to systematic error, including selection bias, exposure misclassification, and outcome misclassification. They may also be vulnerable to random error, or confounding by a variable such as another drug, a disease, or the drug(More)
BACKGROUND Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is critical to successful treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Few interventions have been demonstrated to improve both adherence and virologic outcomes. We sought to determine whether an intervention derived from problem solving theory, Managed Problem Solving (MAPS), would improve antiretroviral(More)
Estrogen exposures have been associated with breast cancer risk, and genes involved in estrogen metabolism have been reported to mediate that risk. Our goal was to better understand whether combinations of candidate estrogen metabolism genotypes are associated with breast cancer etiology. A population-based case-control study in three counties of the(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that bezafibrate, an approved fibrate, can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a retrospective cohort study using data from routine medical practice in the U.K., as captured by the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Individuals chronically exposed to(More)