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1. In ten normal volunteers, a transcranial magnetic or electric stimulus that was subthreshold for evoking an EMG response in relaxed muscles was used to condition responses evoked by a later, suprathreshold magnetic or electric test shock. In most experiments the test stimulus was given to the lateral part of the motor strip in order to evoke EMG(More)
1. Using two magnetic stimulators, we investigated the effect of a conditioning magnetic stimulus over the motor cortex of one hemisphere on the size of EMG responses evoked in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle by a magnetic test stimulus given over the opposite hemisphere. 2. A single conditioning shock to one hemisphere produced inhibition of the(More)
A multiple case study was conducted in order to assess three leading theories of developmental dyslexia: (i) the phonological theory, (ii) the magnocellular (auditory and visual) theory and (iii) the cerebellar theory. Sixteen dyslexic and 16 control university students were administered a full battery of psychometric, phonological, auditory, visual and(More)
Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a simple, safe, and specific way to elicit vestibular reflexes. Yet, despite a long history, it has only recently found popularity as a research tool and is rarely used clinically. The obstacle to advancing and exploiting GVS is that we cannot interpret the evoked responses with certainty because we do not understand(More)
The latency and pattern of muscle recruitment in the startle response elicited by unexpected auditory stimulation was determined in 12 healthy subjects. Reflex EMG activity was recorded first in orbicularis oculi. This was of similar latency to the normal auditory blink reflex and, unlike the generalized startle response, persisted despite the frequent(More)
1. The effects of different forms of brain stimulation on the discharge pattern of single motor units were examined using the post-stimulus time histogram (PSTH) technique and by recording the compound surface electromyographic (EMG) responses in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. Electrical and magnetic methods were used to stimulate the brain(More)
We have investigated whether the processes underlying the visually evoked, automatic adjustments to a reach are: (1) modifiable by the subject's intention, and (2) available to initiate movement of a stationary arm. Unpredictable movement of a target (80 m/s through 10 cm, left or right in a third of trials) either evoked a mid-flight adjustment of a(More)
Application of a small (around 1 mA), constant electric current between the mastoid processes (galvanic stimulation) of a standing subject produces enhanced body sway in the approximate direction of the ear behind which the anode is placed. We examined the electromyographic (EMG) responses evoked by such stimulation in the soleus and in the triceps brachii(More)
Experiments were undertaken to study the effect on voluntary movement of an electrical or magnetic stimulus delivered to the brain through the scalp. Subjects were trained to flex or extend their wrist rapidly in response to an auditory tone. A single brain stimulus (electrical or magnetic) delivered after the tone and before the usual time of onset of the(More)
We have studied manual motor function in a man deafferented by a severe peripheral sensory neuropathy. Motor power was almost unaffected. Our patients could produce a very wide range of preprogrammed finger movements with remarkable accuracy, involving complex muscle synergies of the hand and forearm muscles. He could perform individual finger movements and(More)