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We performed a prospective, randomised controlled trial of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty comparing the performance of the Acrobot system with conventional surgery. A total of 27 patients (28 knees) awaiting unicompartmental knee arthroplasty were randomly allocated to have the operation performed conventionally or with the assistance of the Acrobot.(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) as a means of regulating the intensity of exercise during running. The subjects were healthy, relatively fit young adults (16 men and 12 women). Estimates of effort were recorded using the Borg 6–20 Scale whilst the maximal oxygen uptake of the subjects was measured(More)
Active constraints, also known as virtual fixtures, are high-level control algorithms which can be used to assist a human in man-machine collaborative manipulation tasks. The active constraint controller monitors the robotic manipulator with respect to the environment and task, and anisotropically regulates the motion to provide assistance. The type of(More)
A brief history of robotic systems in knee arthroplasty is provided. The place of autonomous robots is then discussed and compared to more recent 'hands-on' robotic systems that can be more cost effective. The case is made for robotic systems to have a clear justification, with improved benefits compared to those from cheaper navigation systems. A number of(More)
The performance of a novel "hands-on" robotic system for total knee replacement (TKR) surgery is evaluated. An integrated robotic system for accurately machining the bone surfaces in TKR surgery is described. Details of the system, comprising an "active constraint" robot, called Acrobot, a "gross positioning" robot, and patient clamps, are provided. The(More)
As men age, their prostates can enlarge, causing urinary difficulty. Surgery to correct this [transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)] is a skilled and time-consuming operation requiring many repetitive motions of a cutter. A robot has been developed to perform these motions, relieving the surgeon of much of the burden of surgery. This robot has been(More)
Robotic surgery can be carried out automatically by using a robot to move the cutting tool under position control. However, although the surgeon can observe the procedure on a visual display and has the ability to stop the operation in an emergency, he has little direct contact with the task. An alternative approach is to involve the surgeon more directly,(More)