Brian L. Carter

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This study evaluated the relationship between precessation depressed mood and smoking abstinence and assessed the mediation of this effect by postcessation self-efficacy, urges to smoke, nicotine withdrawal, and coping behavior. The sample included 121 smokers previously treated in a randomized controlled trial involving behavior therapy and the nicotine(More)
The use of virtual reality (VR) programs in behavioral science research has been gaining prominence over the past several years. In the field of substance abuse, VR cue reactivity programs have been successfully tested for feasibility in nicotine and cocaine dependent samples. Seeking to expand VR applications in alcohol cue research, a novel VR alcohol cue(More)
Laboratory studies have demonstrated that cigarette smokers react with significant subjective and autonomic responses (e.g., increased craving and increased heart rate) in the presence of stimuli associated with smoking. Although cue reactivity effects are typically robust, a number of methodological considerations make interpretation and design of cue(More)
Although converging lines of evidence suggest that nicotine and mood are related at a fundamental biological level, this link has not been reliably demonstrated in laboratory studies. In this study, startle probe methodology was used to examine the effects of nicotine administration and deprivation on emotional processes associated with motivation. Smokers(More)
Cigarette smokers in laboratory experiments readily respond to smoking stimuli with increased craving. An alternative to traditional cue-reactivity methods (e.g., exposure to cigarette photos), virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be a viable cue presentation method to elicit and assess cigarette craving within complex virtual environments. However, it(More)
INTRODUCTION Numerous studies report smokers' increased craving and physiological arousal when exposed to cigarette stimuli. These responses are attributed to learning processes (e.g., classical conditioning) and are associated with motivational factors that maintain nicotine dependence. However, much less is known about the degree to which these responses(More)
Virtual reality (VR) cue environments have been developed and successfully tested in nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol abusers. Aims in the current article include the development and testing of a novel VR cannabis cue reactivity assessment system. It was hypothesized that subjective craving levels and attention to cannabis cues would be higher in VR(More)
The Implicit Association Test (IAT) has been used to assess automatic affective responses to drug cues. Smokers (n=57) completed the IAT at four experimental sessions. They abstained from smoking before two of the sessions (AB) and smoked normally before the other two sessions (NON). At one AB (and NON) session, they smoked a cigarette about 40 min before(More)
Virtual reality (VR), a system of human-computer interaction that allows researchers and clinicians to immerse people in virtual worlds, is gaining considerable traction as a research, education, and treatment tool. Virtual reality has been used successfully to treat anxiety disorders such as fear of flying and post-traumatic stress disorder, as an aid in(More)
Drug cue reactivity is theoretically and clinically important. The modified Stroop task has been widely used to assess attention capture by drug cues (attentional bias). Attentional bias to drug cues is assumed to reflect the incentive value of those cues, but this has not been directly tested. The authors examined whether the smoking Stroop effect was(More)