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Researchers have hypothesized that drug availability should influence addicts' reactions to drug-related stimuli, but manipulations of the extent to which drug users have access to their drugs following a session of exposure to drug cues have not produced strong availability effects. This study used within-session manipulations of drug availability to(More)
The cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is divided into two distinct phases. Unbudded, mononucleate cells in the G1 phase can react to relevant environmental changes by mating, sporulating, or by entering stationary phase. DNA synthesis and bud initiation occur almost simultaneously and mark 'commitment' to the completion of mitosis.(More)
The use of virtual reality (VR) programs in behavioral science research has been gaining prominence over the past several years. In the field of substance abuse, VR cue reactivity programs have been successfully tested for feasibility in nicotine and cocaine dependent samples. Seeking to expand VR applications in alcohol cue research, a novel VR alcohol cue(More)
Cigarette smokers, when confronted with cues associated with smoking, evidence strong reactions, including increased attentional bias toward those smoking-related cues. These reactions have not been extensively studied in young adult smokers, a group that research suggests may respond differently than adults or adolescent smokers. Furthermore, the impact of(More)
In many eukaryotes it is thought that cell proliferation is regulated at a point in G1 close to the initiation of DNA synthesis. Hartwell and his colleagues have shown such a point in G1 phase in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, defined by the cdc 28 mutation. He has termed this point 'start' and showed that for cells to proceed beyond start,(More)
The Implicit Association Test (IAT) has been used to assess automatic affective responses to drug cues. Smokers (n=57) completed the IAT at four experimental sessions. They abstained from smoking before two of the sessions (AB) and smoked normally before the other two sessions (NON). At one AB (and NON) session, they smoked a cigarette about 40 min before(More)
Cigarette smokers in laboratory experiments readily respond to smoking stimuli with increased craving. An alternative to traditional cue-reactivity methods (e.g., exposure to cigarette photos), virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be a viable cue presentation method to elicit and assess cigarette craving within complex virtual environments. However, it(More)
Compulsive drug use, which is typically portrayed as a defining quality of addictive behavior, has been described as a pattern of drug consumption that is stimulus bound, stereotyped, difficult to regulate and identified by a loss of control over intake. It is widely assumed that compulsive drug use is caused by drug craving. This assumption is supported by(More)
The nature of drug craving and its role in the addictive process is a contentious issue in the addiction sciences. There are numerous disputes regarding the definition, assessment, manipulation and interpretation of craving, and progress toward resolving the enigmas of craving confronts numerous conceptual and methodological challenges. Greater attention to(More)