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The use of virtual reality (VR) programs in behavioral science research has been gaining prominence over the past several years. In the field of substance abuse, VR cue reactivity programs have been successfully tested for feasibility in nicotine and cocaine dependent samples. Seeking to expand VR applications in alcohol cue research, a novel VR alcohol cue(More)
The Implicit Association Test (IAT) has been used to assess automatic affective responses to drug cues. Smokers (n=57) completed the IAT at four experimental sessions. They abstained from smoking before two of the sessions (AB) and smoked normally before the other two sessions (NON). At one AB (and NON) session, they smoked a cigarette about 40 min before(More)
Cigarette smokers, when confronted with cues associated with smoking, evidence strong reactions, including increased attentional bias toward those smoking-related cues. These reactions have not been extensively studied in young adult smokers, a group that research suggests may respond differently than adults or adolescent smokers. Furthermore, the impact of(More)
Cigarette smokers in laboratory experiments readily respond to smoking stimuli with increased craving. An alternative to traditional cue-reactivity methods (e.g., exposure to cigarette photos), virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be a viable cue presentation method to elicit and assess cigarette craving within complex virtual environments. However, it(More)
Laboratory studies have demonstrated that cigarette smokers react with significant subjective and autonomic responses (e.g., increased craving and increased heart rate) in the presence of stimuli associated with smoking. Although cue reactivity effects are typically robust, a number of methodological considerations make interpretation and design of cue(More)
This study explored some quandaries concerning craving and mood as motivators to smoke. Craving and negative mood have long been associated with day-to-day smoking as two of the primary motivational forces behind the maintenance of the behavior, as well as significant barriers in smokers' attempts to quit. Craving remains a clinically relevant phenomenon,(More)
Drug cue reactivity is theoretically and clinically important. The modified Stroop task has been widely used to assess attention capture by drug cues (attentional bias). Attentional bias to drug cues is assumed to reflect the incentive value of those cues, but this has not been directly tested. The authors examined whether the smoking Stroop effect was(More)
This study evaluated the relationship between precessation depressed mood and smoking abstinence and assessed the mediation of this effect by postcessation self-efficacy, urges to smoke, nicotine withdrawal, and coping behavior. The sample included 121 smokers previously treated in a randomized controlled trial involving behavior therapy and the nicotine(More)
Although converging lines of evidence suggest that nicotine and mood are related at a fundamental biological level, this link has not been reliably demonstrated in laboratory studies. In this study, startle probe methodology was used to examine the effects of nicotine administration and deprivation on emotional processes associated with motivation. Smokers(More)
We used multimodal measurement to evaluate whether (a) nicotine dependence is associated with baseline and postquit negative affect and craving, (b) smoking relapse is associated with greater negative affect and craving than abstinence, and (c) craving is associated with negative affect. Treatment-seeking smokers were randomly assigned to either a brief(More)