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It was recently demonstrated that interleukin (IL)-23-driven IL-17-producing (ThIL-17) T cells mediate inflammatory pathology in certain autoimmune diseases. We show that the induction of antigen-specific ThIL-17 cells, but not T helper (Th)1 or Th2 cells, by immunization with antigens and adjuvants is abrogated in IL-1 receptor type I-deficient(More)
Clostridium difficile is the etiological agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and pseudomembranous colitis in humans. The role of the surface layer proteins (SLPs) in this disease has not yet been fully explored. The aim of this study was to investigate a role for SLPs in the recognition of C. difficile and the subsequent activation of the immune(More)
BACKGROUND Reperfusion therapy for myocardial infarction is hampered by detrimental inflammatory responses partly via Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. Targeting TLR signaling may optimize reperfusion therapy and enhance cell survival and heart function after myocardial infarction. Here, we evaluated the role of TLR2 as a therapeutic target using a novel(More)
Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury refers to the tissue damage which occurs when blood supply returns to tissue after a period of ischemia and is associated with trauma, stroke, myocardial infarction, and solid organ transplantation. Although the cause of this injury is multifactorial, increasing experimental evidence suggests an important role for the(More)
INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blocking Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial cells. METHODS RA synovial tissue biopsies, obtained under direct visualization at arthroscopy, were established as synovial explant cultures ex vivo or snap frozen for immunohistology. Mononuclear cell cultures were(More)
Experimental infection of mice with avirulent Semliki Forest virus (SFV) has been used as a model of demyelinating disease in humans. A number of studies have shown that T cells may be important for mediating demyelination, but the role of T cells is still, unclear. Here, we show that neuronal necrosis, but not demyelination, was more severe in interleukin(More)
BACKGROUND Holistic care is a comprehensive model of caring. Previous studies have shown that most nurses do not apply this method. Examining the effective factors in nurses' provision of holistic care can help with enhancing it. Studying these factors from the point of view of nurses will generate real and meaningful concepts and can help to extend this(More)
Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of mice provides a useful model for the analysis of viral neuropathogenesis. In this study, the roles of interferon (IFN)-gamma and nitric oxide (NO) in the pathogenesis of SFV infection were assessed using mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS-/-), an enzyme important in the production of NO, and mice(More)
The effects of Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation in peripheral cells are well characterized but, although several TLRs are expressed on cells of the brain, the consequences of their activation on neuronal function remain to be fully investigated, particularly in the context of assessing their potential as therapeutic targets in neurodegenerative diseases.(More)
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