Brian K. Shoichet

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A critical barrier to entry into structure-based virtual screening is the lack of a suitable, easy to access database of purchasable compounds. We have therefore prepared a library of 727,842 molecules, each with 3D structure, using catalogs of compounds from vendors (the size of this library continues to grow). The molecules have been assigned biologically(More)
Ligand enrichment among top-ranking hits is a key metric of molecular docking. To avoid bias, decoys should resemble ligands physically, so that enrichment is not simply a separation of gross features, yet be chemically distinct from them, so that they are unlikely to be binders. We have assembled a directory of useful decoys (DUD), with 2950 ligands for 40(More)
The identification of protein function based on biological information is an area of intense research. Here we consider a complementary technique that quantitatively groups and relates proteins based on the chemical similarity of their ligands. We began with 65,000 ligands annotated into sets for hundreds of drug targets. The similarity score between each(More)
Although drugs are intended to be selective, at least some bind to several physiological targets, explaining side effects and efficacy. Because many drug-target combinations exist, it would be useful to explore possible interactions computationally. Here we compared 3,665 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and investigational drugs against(More)
A key metric to assess molecular docking remains ligand enrichment against challenging decoys. Whereas the directory of useful decoys (DUD) has been widely used, clear areas for optimization have emerged. Here we describe an improved benchmarking set that includes more diverse targets such as GPCRs and ion channels, totaling 102 proteins with 22886(More)
Pressured by antibiotic use, resistance enzymes have been evolving new activities. Does such evolution have a cost? To investigate this question at the molecular level, clinically isolated mutants of the beta-lactamase TEM-1 were studied. When purified, mutant enzymes had increased activity against cephalosporin antibiotics but lost both thermodynamic(More)
Neuroactive small molecules are indispensable tools for treating mental illnesses and dissecting nervous system function. However, it has been difficult to discover novel neuroactive drugs. Here, we describe a high-throughput, behavior-based approach to neuroactive small molecule discovery in the zebrafish. We used automated screening assays to evaluate(More)
Virtual screening uses computer-based methods to discover new ligands on the basis of biological structures. Although widely heralded in the 1970s and 1980s, the technique has since struggled to meet its initial promise, and drug discovery remains dominated by empirical screening. Recent successes in predicting new ligands and their receptor-bound(More)
High-throughput screening (HTS) of compound libraries is used to discover novel leads for drug development. When a structure is available for the target, computer-based screening using molecular docking may also be considered. The two techniques have rarely been used together on the same target. The opportunity to do so presented itself in a project to(More)
A computer modeling procedure for assessing the stereochemical suitability of pairs of residues in proteins as potential sites for introduction of cystine disulfide crosslinks has been developed. Residue pairs with C alpha-C alpha distances of less than or equal to 6.5 A and C beta-C beta distances of less than or equal to 4.5 A are chosen for geometrical(More)