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This paper describes our approach to designing, developing behaviors for, and exploring the use of, a robotic footstool, which we named the mechanical ottoman. By approaching unsuspecting participants and attempting to get them to place their feet on the footstool, and then later attempting to break the engagement and get people to take their feet down, we(More)
This paper describes a Wizard of Oz study that was performed to gather insights on how automated vehicles (NHTSA’s Levels of Automation 2 and 3) should interact with human drivers. Twelve design improvisation sessions were conducted inside a driving simulator with interaction and interface design experts. The participants drove through a simulated course(More)
In future automated driving systems, drivers will be free to perform other secondary tasks, not needing to stay vigilant in monitoring the car's activity. However, there will still be situations in which drivers are required to take-over control of the vehicle, most likely from a highly distracted state. While highly automated vehicles would ideally(More)
How will pedestrians and bicyclists interact with autonomous vehicles when there is no human driver? In this paper, we outline a novel method for performing observational field experiments to investigate interactions with driverless cars. We provide a proof-of-concept study (N=67), conducted at a crosswalk and a traffic circle, which applies this method. In(More)
With automated driving systems, drivers may still be expected to resume full control of the vehicle. While structured transitions where drivers are given warning are desirable, it is critical to benchmark how drivers perform when transition of control is unstructured and occurs without advanced warning. In this study, we observed how participants (N=27) in(More)
How will pedestrians and cyclists interact with self-driving cars when there is no human driver? To find answers to this question we need a secure experimental design in which pedestrians can interact with a car that appears to drive on its own. In Ghost Driver we staged a fake autonomous car by installing LIDARs, cameras and decals on the outside of the(More)
While automated driving systems will become increasingly capable and common in the future, there will still be instances when human drivers want or need to make corrections to the car's automated driving behavior. We conducted two studies exploring how driving interfaces could be designed to better execute the drivers' intentions. In our first study, adult(More)