Brian K. Hall

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How 'complex' or composite morphological structures like the mammalian craniomandibular region arise during development and how they are altered during evolution are two major unresolved questions in biology. Herein, we have described a model for the development and evolution of complex morphological structures. The model assumes that natural selection acts(More)
During osteogenesis, osteoblasts lay down osteoid and transform into osteocytes embedded in mineralized bone matrix. Despite the fact that osteocytes are the most abundant cellular component of bone, little is known about the process of osteoblast-to-osteocyte transformation. What is known is that osteoblasts undergo a number of changes during this(More)
Condensation is the pivotal stage in the development of skeletal and other mesenchymal tissues. It occurs when a previously dispersed population of cells gathers together to differentiate into a single cell/tissue type such as cartilage, bone, muscle, tendon, kidney, and lung and is the earliest stage during organ formation when tissue-specific genes are(More)
  • Brian K. Hall
  • Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical…
  • 2003
Homology is at the foundation of comparative studies in biology at all levels from genes to phenotypes. Homology is similarity because of common descent and ancestry, homoplasy is similarity arrived at via independent evolution. However, given that there is but one tree of life, all organisms, and therefore all features of organisms, share some degree of(More)
Elements of the vertebrate skeleton are initiated as cell condensations, collectively termed the ‘membranous skeleton’ whether cartilages or bones by Grüneberg (1963). Condensations, which were identified as the basic cellular units in a recent model of morphological change in development and evolution (Atchley and Hall 1991) are reviewed in this paper.(More)
Anterior/posterior (a/p) compression of the vertebral column, referred to as 'short tails', is a recurring event in farmed Atlantic salmon. Like other skeletal deformities, the problem usually becomes evident in a late life phase, too late for preventive measures, making it difficult to understand the aetiology of the disease. We use structural,(More)
Neural crestectomies were performed on neurula stage medaka embryos to remove neural crest with tungsten needles from one of five anteriorly located zones. The embryos were allowed to develop to stage 35 (immediately posthatching) larvae, then cleared and stained for cartilage. An analysis of changes to the head skeletons indicated that most of the anterior(More)
  • Brian K. Hall
  • Journal of embryology and experimental morphology
  • 1980
Mandibular processes from 9- to 13-day-old embryonic mice formed both bone and cartilage when grafted to the chorioallantoic membranes of most embryonic chicks. Isolated ectomesenchyme, taken from 9-day-old embryos did not form bone or cartilage, while older ectomesenchyme formed both. Recombination of the epithelial and ectomesenchymal components confirmed(More)
This review deals with the following seven aspects of vertebrate skeletogenic and odontogenic tissues. 1. The evolutionary sequence in which the tissues appeared amongst the lower craniate taxa. 2. The topographic association between skeletal (cartilage, bone) and dental (dentine, cement, enamel) tissues in the oldest vertebrates of each major taxon. 3. The(More)
The mechanical loading of striated muscle is thought to play an important role in shaping bones and joints. Here, we examine skeletogenesis in late embryogenesis (embryonic day 18.5) in Myf5 −/− :MyoD −/− fetuses completely lacking striated muscle. The phenotype includes enlarged and fused cervical vertebrae and postural anomalies, some viscerocranial(More)