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Highly specific antibodies to phosphoepitopes are valuable tools to study phosphorylation in disease states, but their discovery is largely empirical, and the molecular mechanisms mediating phosphospecific binding are poorly understood. Here, we report the generation and characterization of extremely specific recombinant chicken antibodies to three(More)
Examination of 1269 unique naive chicken V(H) sequences showed that the majority of positions in the framework (FW) regions were maintained as germline, with high mutation rates observed in the CDRs. Many FW mutations could be clearly related to the modulation of CDR structure or the V(H)-V(L) interface. CDRs 1 and 2 of the V(H) exhibited frequent mutation(More)
Microtubules play important roles in cell division, motility and structural integrity of malarial parasites. Some microtubule inhibitors disrupt parasite development at very low concentrations, but most of them also kill mammalian cells. However, the dinitroaniline family of herbicides, which bind specifically to plant tubulin, have inhibitory activity on(More)
Antibodies that neutralize RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products)-ligand interactions have potential therapeutic applications in both acute and chronic diseases. We generated XT-M4, a rat anti-RAGE monoclonal antibody that has in vivo efficacy in an acute sepsis model. This antibody was subsequently humanized. To improve the affinity of this(More)
Malarial parasites are exquisitely susceptible to a number of microtubule inhibitors but most of these compounds also affect human microtubules. Herbicides of the dinitroaniline and phosphorothioamidate classes however affect some plant and protozoal cells but not mammalian ones. We have previously shown that these herbicides block schizogony in(More)
The shark antigen-binding V(NAR) domain has the potential to provide an attractive alternative to traditional biotherapeutics based on its small size, advantageous physiochemical properties, and unusual ability to target clefts in enzymes or cell surface molecules. The V(NAR) shares many of the properties of the well-characterised single-domain camelid(More)
Phage and ribosome display technologies have emerged as important tools in the high-throughput screening of protein pharmaceuticals. However, a challenge created by the implementation of such tools is the need to purify large numbers of proteins for screening. While some assays may be compatible with crude bacterial lysates or periplasmic extracts, many(More)
We have generated large libraries of single-chain Fv antibody fragments (>10(10) transformants) containing unbiased amino acid diversity that is restricted to the central combining site of the stable, well-expressed DP47 and DPK22 germline V-genes. Library WySH2A was constructed to examine the potential for synthetic complementarity-determining region(More)
While myriad molecular formats for bispecific antibodies have been examined to date, the simplest structures are often based on the scFv. Issues with stability and manufacturability in scFv-based bispecific molecules, however, have been a significant hindrance to their development, particularly for high-concentration, stable formulations that allow(More)
Although humanized antibodies have been highly successful in the clinic, all current humanization techniques have potential limitations, such as: reliance on rodent hosts, immunogenicity due to high non-germ-line amino acid content, v-domain destabilization, expression and formulation issues. This study presents a technology that generates stable, soluble,(More)