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BACKGROUND Basic numeracy skills are necessary before patients can understand the risks of medical treatments. Previous research has used objective measures, similar to mathematics tests, to evaluate numeracy. OBJECTIVES To design a subjective measure (i.e., self-assessment) of quantitative ability that distinguishes low- and high-numerate individuals yet(More)
OBJECTIVE To summarize existing research on individual numeracy and methods for presenting risk information to patients. METHODS We selectively retrieved articles from MEDLINE and the Social Sciences Citation Index. RESULTS Many Americans have low numeracy skills, a deficit that impedes effective health care. Approaches to risk communication vary in(More)
OBJECTIVE To test whether providing comparative risk information changes risk perceptions. METHODS Two hundred and forty-nine female visitors to a hospital cafeteria were randomized to one of two conditions which differed in whether their hypothetical breast cancer risks was lower or higher than the average women's. Participants read a scenario describing(More)
BACKGROUND In a companion article, the authors describe the Subjective Numeracy Scale (SNS), a self-assessment of numerical aptitude and preferences for numbers that correlates strongly with objective numeracy. OBJECTIVE The objective of this article is to validate the Subjective Numeracy Scale using measures of subjects' capacity to recall and comprehend(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the ability of six graph formats to impart knowledge about treatment risks/benefits to low and high numeracy individuals. METHODS Participants were randomized to receive numerical information about the risks and benefits of a hypothetical medical treatment in one of six graph formats. Each described the benefits of taking one of two(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the medical history, disease progression, and treatment of current-era patients with the rare diseases Fontan-associated protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) and plastic bronchitis. STUDY DESIGN A novel survey that queried demographics, medical details, and treatment information was piloted and placed online via a Facebook portal,(More)
BACKGROUND Approximately half of American adults do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines. Face-to-face lifestyle interventions improve health outcomes but are unlikely to yield population-level improvements because they can be difficult to disseminate, expensive to maintain, and inconvenient for the recipient. In contrast, Internet-based(More)
BACKGROUND Although split-dose bowel regimen is recommended in colon cancer screening and surveillance guidelines, implementation in clinical practice has seemingly lagged because of concerns of patient compliance. OBJECTIVES To assess patient compliance with the split-dose bowel regimen and assess patient- and preparation process-related factors(More)
The emergence of Web 2.0 has led to more and more Web-based resources demonstrating three defining characteristics: user participation, openness and network effects. This paper discusses these characteristics in the context of the online vaccination debate, explores how they structurally alter the way people might interact with vaccination information(More)
BACKGROUND Many decisions can be understood in terms of actors' valuations of benefits and costs. The article investigates whether this is also true of patient medical decision making. It aims to investigate (i) the importance patients attach to various reasons for and against nine medical decisions; (ii) how well the importance attached to benefits and(More)