Brian J. Zikmund-Fisher

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BACKGROUND Basic numeracy skills are necessary before patients can understand the risks of medical treatments. Previous research has used objective measures, similar to mathematics tests, to evaluate numeracy. OBJECTIVES To design a subjective measure (i.e., self-assessment) of quantitative ability that distinguishes low- and high-numerate individuals yet(More)
BACKGROUND Making evidence-based decisions often requires comparison of two or more options. Research-based evidence may exist which quantifies how likely the outcomes are for each option. Understanding these numeric estimates improves patients' risk perception and leads to better informed decision making. This paper summarises current "best practices" in(More)
BACKGROUND Approximately half of American adults do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines. Face-to-face lifestyle interventions improve health outcomes but are unlikely to yield population-level improvements because they can be difficult to disseminate, expensive to maintain, and inconvenient for the recipient. In contrast, Internet-based(More)
BACKGROUND In a companion article, the authors describe the Subjective Numeracy Scale (SNS), a self-assessment of numerical aptitude and preferences for numbers that correlates strongly with objective numeracy. OBJECTIVE The objective of this article is to validate the Subjective Numeracy Scale using measures of subjects' capacity to recall and comprehend(More)
Tamoxifen reduces primary breast cancer incidence, yet causes serious side effects. To date, few women with increased breast cancer risk have elected to use tamoxifen for chemoprevention. The objective of the study was to determine women’s knowledge of and attitudes toward tamoxifen following exposure to a tailored decision aid (DA). A total of 632 women(More)
BACKGROUND Factors underlying failure to intensify therapy in response to elevated blood pressure have not been systematically studied. OBJECTIVE To examine the process of care for diabetic patients with elevated triage blood pressure (> or =140/90 mm Hg) during routine primary care visits to assess whether a treatment change occurred and to what degree(More)
BACKGROUND To help oncologists and breast cancer patients make informed decisions about adjuvant therapies, online tools such as Adjuvant! provide tailored estimates of mortality and recurrence risks. However, the graphical format used to display these results (a set of 4 horizontal stacked bars) may be suboptimal. The authors tested whether using simpler(More)
OBJECTIVE To summarize existing research on individual numeracy and methods for presenting risk information to patients. METHODS We selectively retrieved articles from MEDLINE and the Social Sciences Citation Index. RESULTS Many Americans have low numeracy skills, a deficit that impedes effective health care. Approaches to risk communication vary in(More)
OBJECTIVE To test whether providing comparative risk information changes risk perceptions. METHODS Two hundred and forty-nine female visitors to a hospital cafeteria were randomized to one of two conditions which differed in whether their hypothetical breast cancer risks was lower or higher than the average women's. Participants read a scenario describing(More)
Although tamoxifen can prevent primary breast cancer, few women use it as a preventive measure. A second option, raloxifene, has recently been approved. The objective of the study was to determine women’s interest in tamoxifen and raloxifene after reading a decision aid (DA) describing the risks and benefits of each medication. Women with 5-year risk of(More)