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BACKGROUND Basic numeracy skills are necessary before patients can understand the risks of medical treatments. Previous research has used objective measures, similar to mathematics tests, to evaluate numeracy. OBJECTIVES To design a subjective measure (i.e., self-assessment) of quantitative ability that distinguishes low- and high-numerate individuals yet(More)
BACKGROUND In a companion article, the authors describe the Subjective Numeracy Scale (SNS), a self-assessment of numerical aptitude and preferences for numbers that correlates strongly with objective numeracy. OBJECTIVE The objective of this article is to validate the Subjective Numeracy Scale using measures of subjects' capacity to recall and comprehend(More)
BACKGROUND To help oncologists and breast cancer patients make informed decisions about adjuvant therapies, online tools such as Adjuvant! provide tailored estimates of mortality and recurrence risks. However, the graphical format used to display these results (a set of 4 horizontal stacked bars) may be suboptimal. The authors tested whether using simpler(More)
OBJECTIVE To summarize existing research on individual numeracy and methods for presenting risk information to patients. METHODS We selectively retrieved articles from MEDLINE and the Social Sciences Citation Index. RESULTS Many Americans have low numeracy skills, a deficit that impedes effective health care. Approaches to risk communication vary in(More)
OBJECTIVE To test whether providing comparative risk information changes risk perceptions. METHODS Two hundred and forty-nine female visitors to a hospital cafeteria were randomized to one of two conditions which differed in whether their hypothetical breast cancer risks was lower or higher than the average women's. Participants read a scenario describing(More)
BACKGROUND Approximately half of American adults do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines. Face-to-face lifestyle interventions improve health outcomes but are unlikely to yield population-level improvements because they can be difficult to disseminate, expensive to maintain, and inconvenient for the recipient. In contrast, Internet-based(More)
Tamoxifen reduces primary breast cancer incidence, yet causes serious side effects. To date, few women with increased breast cancer risk have elected to use tamoxifen for chemoprevention. The objective of the study was to determine women’s knowledge of and attitudes toward tamoxifen following exposure to a tailored decision aid (DA). A total of 632 women(More)
BACKGROUND Patients should understand the risks and benefits of cancer screening in order to make informed screening decisions. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the extent of informed decision making in patient-provider discussions for colorectal (CRC), breast (BrCa), and prostate (PCa) cancer screening. SETTING National sample of US adults identified by(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the medical history, disease progression, and treatment of current-era patients with the rare diseases Fontan-associated protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) and plastic bronchitis. STUDY DESIGN A novel survey that queried demographics, medical details, and treatment information was piloted and placed online via a Facebook portal,(More)
BACKGROUND Online tools such as Adjuvant! provide tailored estimates of the possible outcomes of adjuvant therapy options available to breast cancer patients. The graphical format typically displays 4 outcomes simultaneously: survival, mortality due to cancer, other-cause mortality, and incremental survival due to adjuvant treatment. OBJECTIVE To test(More)