Brian J. Zikmund-Fisher

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BACKGROUND Approximately half of American adults do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines. Face-to-face lifestyle interventions improve health outcomes but are unlikely to yield population-level improvements because they can be difficult to disseminate, expensive to maintain, and inconvenient for the recipient. In contrast, Internet-based(More)
BACKGROUND Making evidence-based decisions often requires comparison of two or more options. Research-based evidence may exist which quantifies how likely the outcomes are for each option. Understanding these numeric estimates improves patients' risk perception and leads to better informed decision making. This paper summarises current "best practices" in(More)
Reports of randomized clinical trials often use survival curves to summarize clinical outcomes over time and graphically demonstrate evidence of treatment effectiveness. Survival curves can also be used in patient communications to display how health risks accumulate over time. In a randomized survey experiment, administered online, we tested whether people(More)
BACKGROUND Risk communication involves conveying two inherently difficult concepts about the nature of risk: the underlying random distribution of outcomes and how a population-based proportion applies to an individual. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to test whether 4 design factors in icon arrays-animated random dispersal of risk events,(More)
OBJECTIVE Patients with chronic health conditions usually place higher utility on their condition than the public does. One explanation for this discrepancy is that healthy people focus on the negative aspects of the condition without considering their own ability to emotionally adapt to the condition over time. The aim of this randomized experimental study(More)
BACKGROUND Paper-based patient decision aids generally present risk information using numbers and/or static images. However, limited psychological research has suggested that when people interactively graph risk information, they process the statistics more actively, making the information more available for decision making. Such interactive tools could(More)
Imagine that you have just received a colon cancer diagnosis and need to choose between two different surgical treatments. One surgery, the " complicated surgery, " has a lower mortality rate (16% vs. 20%) but compared to the other surgery, the " uncomplicated surgery, " also carries an additional 1% risk of each of four serious complications: colostomy,(More)
To examine the association of 1) race/ethnicity and 2) numeracy with awareness of DTC genetic tests. Secondary analysis of 6,754 Hispanic, black, and white adult respondents to the National Cancer Institute’s 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Logistic regression was used to examine sociodemographic predictors of DTC genetic tests(More)
BACKGROUND Increasing numbers of patients have direct access to laboratory test results outside of clinical consultations. This offers increased opportunities for both self-management of chronic conditions and advance preparation for clinic visits if patients are able to identify test results that are outside the reference ranges. OBJECTIVE Our objective(More)
While patients often receive risk information, exactly what constitutes being "informed" about health risks is often unclear. Patients have specific needs, such as avoiding being surprised by a possible outcome and making complex risk trade-off decisions. Yet all risk information is not equally informative for those needs. In this article, I present a(More)