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OBJECTIVES The promotion of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) to reduce the postnatal transmission (PNT) of HIV is based on limited data. In the context of a trial of postpartum vitamin A supplementation, we provided education and counseling about infant feeding and HIV, prospectively collected information on infant feeding practices, and measured associated(More)
OBJECTIVE To validate the BED capture enzyme immunoassay for HIV-1 subtype C and to derive adjustments facilitating estimation of HIV-1 incidence from cross-sectional surveys. DESIGN Laboratory analysis of archived plasma samples collected in Zimbabwe. METHODS Serial plasma samples from 85 women who seroconverted to HIV-1 during the postpartum year were(More)
BACKGROUND HIV causes substantial mortality among African children but there is limited data on how this is influenced by maternal or infant infection status and timing. METHODS Children enrolled in the ZVITAMBO trial were divided into 5 groups: those born to HIV-negative mothers (NE, n = 9510), those born to HIV-positive mothers but noninfected (NI, n =(More)
Studies of HLA-G and HLA-E polymorphisms in different populations from many industrialized countries have uniformly reported little sequence variation within these genes. To date, the polymorphism of these genes has not been characterized in populations from developing countries where more sequence variation would be anticipated due to greater exposure to(More)
BACKGROUND Important knowledge gaps exist in our understanding of migration medicine practice and the impact of pathogens imported by Canadian travellers. We present here a comprehensive, Canada-specific surveillance summary of illness in a cohort of returned Canadian travellers and new immigrants. METHODS We extracted and analyzed (using standard(More)
BACKGROUND Young infants are at risk of vitamin A deficiency. Supplementation of breastfeeding mothers improves the vitamin A status of their infants, but there are no data regarding its effect on infant mortality, and data on the effect of directly supplementing infants during the first few weeks of life are conflicting. OBJECTIVE The objective was to(More)
OBJECTIVES We assessed whether 2 full versus 2 half-doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) could improve immunogenicity without increasing reactogenicity in infants (aged 6-11 months) and toddlers (aged 12-23 months). METHODS Previously unimmunized infants and toddlers were separately randomly assigned to receive 2 full (0.5-mL) or 2 half(More)
BACKGROUND The largest measles epidemic in North America in the last decade, occurred in 2011 in Quebec, Canada, where rates of 1- and 2-dose vaccine coverage among children 3 years of age were 95%-97% and 90%, respectively, with 3%-5% unvaccinated. METHODS Case patients identified through passive surveillance and outbreak investigation were contacted to(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin A deficiency is common among women in resource-poor countries and is associated with greater mortality during HIV. METHODS Fourteen thousand one hundred ten mothers were tested for HIV and randomly administered 400,000 IU vitamin A or placebo at less than 96 hours postpartum. The effects of vitamin A and HIV status on mortality, health(More)
Measles is associated with alterations in immune regulation that sometimes lead to secondary infections or autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Simultaneously, an effective measles virus-specific immune response develops. To relate immune activation to measles and its complications, we studied the spontaneous proliferation of blood mononuclear cells and(More)