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An estimated 2 billion ha of forests are degraded globally and global change suggests even greater need for forest restoration. Four forest restoration paradigms are identified and discussed: revegetation, ecological restoration, functional restoration, and forest landscape restoration. Restoration is examined in terms of a degraded starting point and an(More)
Intense harvesting and slash fires during the late 1800s and early 1900s led to homogenization throughout the Great Lakes region via the conversion from tamarack, pine, and spruce forests to aspen forests, which are supported by the forest products industry. Subsequently, mesophication occurred in the eastern United States due to fire suppression,(More)
In ecological communities, the outcome of plant-plant interactions represents the net effect of positive and negative interactions occurring above and below ground. Untangling these complex relationships can provide a better understanding of mechanisms that underlie plant-plant interactions and enhance our ability to predict population, community, and(More)
Woody debris decay rates have recently received much attention because of the need to quantify temporal changes in forest carbon stocks. Published decay rates, available for many species, are commonly used to characterize deadwood biomass and carbon depletion. However, decay rates are often derived from reductions in wood density through time, which when(More)
1. Industrial forestry typically leads to a simplified forest structure and altered species composition. Retention of trees at harvest was introduced about 25 years ago to mitigate negative impacts on biodiversity, mainly from clearcutting, and is now widely practiced in boreal and temperate regions. Despite numerous studies on response of flora and fauna(More)
Cover Photographs: (Left) A 140 year old red pine stand on the Cutfoot Experimental Forest in Northern Minnesota, (center) an old growth red pine stand in northern Minnesota circa 1920, and (right) a 40 year old red pine plantation on the Kellogg Experimental Forest in central lower Michigan. (USDA Forest Service)
We examined reassembly of winning and losing tree species, species traits including shade and fire tolerance, and associated disturbance filters and forest ecosystem types due to rapid forest change in the Great Lakes region since 1850. We identified winning and losing species by changes in composition, distribution, and site factors between historical and(More)
BACKGROUND Species distribution models require selection of species, study extent and spatial unit, statistical methods, variables, and assessment metrics. If absence data are not available, another important consideration is pseudoabsence generation. Different strategies for pseudoabsence generation can produce varying spatial representation of species. (More)
Integrating LANDIS model and a multi-criteria decision-making approach to evaluate cumulative effects of forest management in the Missouri Ozarks, USA" (2012). USDA Forest Service / UNL Faculty Publications. Paper 162. a b s t r a c t Public forest management requires consideration of numerous objectives including protecting ecosystem health, sustaining(More)
Assessing the species diversity of an urban forest is important for understanding its structure and functions, but the result can be affected by sampling methods, times, and delimitations of the study area. In this study, we examined the influence of different ways to delimit boundaries of urban areas on the assessment of species diversity of urban forests(More)