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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurological disease with no effective treatment. We report the results of a moderate-scale sequencing study aimed at increasing the number of genes known to contribute to predisposition for ALS. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 2869 ALS patients and 6405 controls. Several known ALS genes were found(More)
BACKGROUND The positive transcription elongation factor, P-TEFb, is required for the production of mRNAs, however the majority of the factor is present in the 7SK snRNP where it is inactivated by HEXIM1. Expression of HIV-1 Tat leads to release of P-TEFb and HEXIM1 from the 7SK snRNP in vivo, but the release mechanisms are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
Regulation of the elongation phase of RNA polymerase II transcription by P-TEFb is a critical control point for gene expression. The activity of P-TEFb is regulated, in part, by reversible association with one of two HEXIMs and the 7SK snRNP. A recent proteomics survey revealed that P-TEFb and the HEXIMs are tightly connected to two(More)
UNLABELLED Gammaherpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, or HHV-8), and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68, γHV68, or MuHV-4), are B cell-tropic pathogens that each encode at least 12 microRNAs (miRNAs). It is predicted that these regulatory RNAs facilitate infection by suppressing host target genes(More)
UNLABELLED Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a highly angiogenic and invasive tumor often involving different organ sites, including the oral cavity, is caused by infection with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Diverse cell markers have been identified on KS tumor cells, but their origin remains an enigma. We previously showed that KSHV could(More)
Regulation of the positive transcription elongation factor, P-TEFb, plays a major role in controlling mammalian transcription and this is accomplished in part by controlled release of P-TEFb from the 7SK snRNP that sequesters the kinase in an inactive state. We demonstrate here that a similar P-TEFb control system exists in Drosophila. We show that an RNA(More)
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) microRNAs are encoded in the latency-associated region. Knockdown of KSHV miR-K12-3 and miR-K12-11 increased expression of lytic genes in BC-3 cells, and increased virus production from latently infected BCBL-1 cells. Furthermore, iSLK cells infected with miR-K12-3 and miR-K12-11 deletion mutant viruses(More)
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a highly disseminated angiogenic tumor of endothelial cells linked to infection by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). KSHV encodes more than two dozens of miRNAs but their roles in KSHV-induced tumor dissemination and metastasis remain unknown. Here, we found that ectopic expression of miR-K12-3 (miR-K3) promoted(More)
UNLABELLED The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF57 gene product is essential for lytic KSHV replication and virion production. Recombinant ORF57-null mutants fail to accumulate several lytic cycle mRNAs at wild-type levels, leading to decreased production of lytic proteins necessary for efficient replication. Several mechanisms by which(More)