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2004 balloon flights are also presented. Overall good agreeement is obtained, often within 5 to 10%, but we point out certain issues to resolve and some larger systematic differences; some artifacts in the first publicly released MLS (version 1.5) dataset are noted. We comment briefly on future plans for validation and software improvements.
We report the first demonstration of a continuous wave coherent source covering 2.48-2.75 THz, with greater than 10% instantaneous tuning bandwidth and having 1-14 μW of output power at room temperature. This source is based on a 91.8-101.8 GHz synthesizer followed by a power amplifier and three cascaded frequency triplers. It demonstrates for the first(More)
[1] We report a steady decrease in the upper stratospheric and lower mesospheric abundances of hydrogen chloride (HCl) from August 2004 through January 2006, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite. For 60°S to 60°N zonal means, the average yearly change in the 0.7 to 0.1 hPa ($50 to 65 km) region is À27 ± 3 pptv/year, or(More)
[1] Satellite measurements of OH and HO 2 obtained by the Aura MLS instrument are compared to the balloon-borne BOH and FIRS-2 instruments. All measurements are also compared with constrained photochemical model calculations. On average, both balloon measurements of OH agree with MLS within 17% over 25– 40 km and the measurements agree with the model within(More)
Complete and reliable knowledge of the ammonia spectrum is needed to enable the analysis and interpretation of astrophysical and planetary observations. Ammonia has been observed in the interstellar medium up to J=18 and more highly excited transitions are expected to appear in hot exoplanets and brown dwarfs. As a result, there is considerable interest in(More)
The pure rotational spectrum of cis-cis peroxynitrous acid, HOONO, has been observed. Over 220 transitions, sampling states up to J'=67 and Ka'=31, have been fitted with an rms uncertainty of 48.4 kHz. The experimentally determined rotational constants agree well with ab initio values for the cis-cis conformer, a five-membered ring formed by intramolecular(More)
—This paper presents a hybrid design based, CMOS millimeter-wave (mm-wave) single-polar single-throw (SPST) switch. The circuit design starts from the analysis and optimization of a distributed structure, while implemented using coupled lump elements for performance improvement and area-efficient layout. Moreover, a specific bias scheme is used to further(More)
We have developed a simultaneous global fit to the MW, THz, infrared, visible, and UV transitions of all six oxygen isotopologues, (16)O(16)O, (16)O(17)O, (16)O(18)O, (17)O(17)O, (17)O(18)O, (18)O(18)O, with the objective of predicting all transitions below the O((3)P) + O((3)P) dissociation threshold as well as the B(3)Σ(u) (-) state from O((3)P)+O((1)D)(More)
We present highly accurate laboratory measurements on the pure rotational spectrum of doubly deuterated water, D2O, in selected frequency regions from 10 GHz up to 2.7 THz. Around 140 rotational transitions in both the vibrational ground and first excited bending states (upsilon2=0,1) were measured in total, involving energy levels with unexcelled high J(More)