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Single level axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF) using a transsacral rod through a paracoccygeal approach has been developed with promising early clinical results and biomechanical stability. Recently, the transsacral rod has been extended to perform a two-level fusion at both L4–L5 and L5–S1 levels (AxiaLIF II). No biomechanical studies have been(More)
STUDY DESIGN This study is a prospective review of all spinal cord monitoring procedures in our unit from 1999 to 2004 in patients undergoing spinal deformity correction surgery. OBJECTIVE To report the sensitivity and specificity of transcranial motor-evoked potentials (MEP) and compound muscle action potential (CMAP) monitoring as the sole modality in(More)
There are limited data on the use of bisphosphonate therapy for secondary osteoporoses in childhood, and no previous reports of the use of zoledronic acid in this group. We report 20 children with a variety of underlying primary diagnoses with associated secondary osteoporosis, who were treated with 3 monthly zoledronic acid for 2 years (annualised dose(More)
Pedicle screws are placed using pilot holes. The trajectory of pilot holes can be verified by pedicle sounding or radiographs. However, a pilot hole alone does not insure that the screw will follow the pilot hole. No studies have characterized the risk of misalignment of a pedicle screw with respect to its pilot hole trajectory. The objective of this study(More)
We have previously investigated electromyographic (EMG) and transcranial motor evoked potential (MEP) abnormalities after mechanical spinal cord injury. We now report thermally generated porcine spinal cord injury, characterized by spinal cord generated hindlimb EMG injury activity and spinal cord motor conduction block (MEP loss). Electrocautery (EC) was(More)
A considerable body of research has demonstrated that loanwords often pattern differently than native vocabulary with respect to markedness restrictions. Most commonly, clearly “foreign” words observe a subset of the markedness restrictions obeyed by more nativized words (Saciuk 1969, Holden 1976, Paradis & Lebel 1994, Itô & Mester 1995, 1999, 2008, Paradis(More)
In typical forms of derived environment blocking, restrictions on segment sequences within a prosodic domain are weakened when the same segments span a prosodic juncture. In this paper, I argue that these patterns are accounted for by indexing markedness constraints to the spans of prosodic constituents. By setting domains for phonotactic restrictions,(More)
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