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Invertase (beta-fructosidase, EC 3.2.1.26) hydrolyzes sucrose to hexose sugars and thus plays a fundamental role in the energy requirements for plant growth and maintenance. Transgenic plants with altered extracellular acid invertase have highly disturbed growth habits. We investigated the role of intracellular soluble acid invertase in plant and fruit(More)
We describe a dialogue system construction tool that supports the rapid development of dialogue systems for learning applications. Our goals in developing this tool were to provide 1) a plug-and-play type of system that facilitates the integration of new modules and experimentation with different core modules 2) configuration options that effect the(More)
TuTalk supports the rapid development of dialogue agents for learning applications. It enables an experimenter to create a dialogue agent with either minimal or no programming and provides the infrastructure needed for testing hypotheses about dialogue. Our main goals in developing this tool were to provide 1) an authoring interface and language for setting(More)
Tomato polygalacturonase is a cell wall enzyme secreted in large amounts during tomato fruit ripening. Polygalacturonase is synthesized as a glycoprotein precursor that undergoes numerous cotranslational and post-translational processing steps during its maturation, yielding three isozymes in tomato fruit, PG1, PG2A, and PG2B. To investigate the(More)
In this paper we present Carmel-Tools, a new set of authoring tools for overcoming the knowledge engineering bottleneck for building tutorial dialogue systems that can accept natural language text input from students. Carmel-Tools provides the facilities for speeding up and simplifying the task of creating domain specific knowledge sources for sentence(More)
In this paper we present an evaluation of a proof of concept for a novel behavior oriented approach to authoring and maintaining domain specific knowledge sources for robust sentence-level language understanding. What we mean by behavior oriented is that CarmelTools provides a layer of abstraction between the author and the knowledge sources, freeing up the(More)
classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for third-party components of this work must be honored. For all other uses, contact the Owner/Author. SIGGRAPH 2014, August 10 – 14, 2014, Vancouver, British(More)
When dealing with a natural language interaction about a formal domain, a number of phenomena occur. They include interspersing natural language with formulas, various degrees of formality, and conveying the logical structure of an essay. Capturing these phenomena, to some extent, is necessary for providing relevant tutoring feedback. In this paper we(More)
Experimental design strategies most often involve an initial choice of a classic factorial or response surface design and adapt that design to meet restrictions or unique requirements of the system under study. One such experience is described here, in which the objective was to develop an efficient experimental design strategy that would facilitate(More)
Cloud computing is a new paradigm for the delivery of IT services. It has enabled many promising opportunities for features that cannot be easily implemented in traditional IT environments, such as elastic scalability, self-service deployment, resiliency and recovery, and so forth. Benchmarking the cloud requires a well-defined set of cloud performance(More)