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Campylobacter jejuni, a gram-negative motile bacterium, secretes a set of proteins termed the Campylobacter invasion antigens (Cia proteins). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the flagellar apparatus serves as the export apparatus for the Cia proteins. Mutations were generated in five genes encoding three structural components of the(More)
Two-component regulatory systems play a major role in the physiological response of bacteria to environmental stimuli. Such systems are composed of a sensor histidine kinase and a response regulator whose ultimate function is to affect the expression of target genes. Response regulator mutants of Campylobacter jejuni strain F38011 were screened for(More)
Taxonomic classification of Clostridium botulinum is based on the production of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), while closely related, nontoxic organisms are classified as Clostridium sporogenes. However, this taxonomic organization does not accurately mirror phylogenetic relationships between these species. A phylogenetic reconstruction using 2,016(More)
Botulism due to type F botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/F) is rare (<1% of cases), and only a limited number of clostridial strains producing this toxin type have been isolated. As a result, analysis of the diversity of genes encoding BoNT/F has been challenging. In this study, the entire bont/F nucleotide sequences were determined from 33 type F botulinum(More)
In the United States, most Clostridium botulinum type A strains isolated during laboratory investigations of human botulism demonstrate the presence of an expressed type A botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/A) gene and an unexpressed BoNT/B gene. These strains are designated type A(B). The most common pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern in the C.(More)
Phenotypic and genotypic evidence suggests that not all Campylobacter jejuni isolates are pathogenic for humans. We hypothesized that differences in gene content or gene expression alter the degree of pathogenicity of C. jejuni isolates. A C. jejuni isolate (Turkey) recovered from a turkey and a second C. jejuni isolate (CS) recovered from a chicken(More)
We report that C. jejuni modifies its outer membrane protein (OMP) repertoire when cultivated under iron-limiting conditions such as during incubation with epithelial cells. To identify genes encoding de novo expressed OMPs, a C. jejuni cosmid library was screened with antisera raised against proteins expressed in the presence of epithelial cells. A single(More)
Among strains of Campylobacter jejuni, levels of ferrous iron (Fe2+) uptake was comparable. However, C. jejuni showed a lower level of ferrous iron uptake than Escherichia coli. Consistent with studies of E. coli, Fe2+ uptake in C. jejuni was significantly enhanced by low Mg2+ concentration. The C. jejuni genome sequence contains a single known ferrous iron(More)
A focused oligonucleotide microarray featuring 62 probes targeting strain variable regions of the Clostridium botulinum strain ATCC 3502 genome sequence was developed to differentiate C. botulinum type A strains. The strain variable regions were selected from deletions identified among a panel of 10 type A strains compared to the strain ATCC 3502 genome(More)
For nearly one hundred years, researchers have attempted to categorize botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridia and the toxins that they produce according to biochemical characterizations, serological comparisons, and genetic analyses. Throughout this period the bacteria and their toxins have defied such attempts at categorization. Below is a description(More)