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Beta diversity can be defined as the variability in species composition among sampling units for a given area. We propose that it can be measured as the average dissimilarity from individual observation units to their group centroid in multivariate space, using an appropriate dissimilarity measure. Differences in beta diversity among different areas or(More)
OBJECTIVE Circulating levels of adiponectin are low in obesity and metabolic disorders associated with increasing fat mass including insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Body fat stores may be positively related to intake of dietary fat, but little is known of mechanisms by which serum adiponectin may be regulated through diet. We investigated acute effects(More)
SUMMARY Line transects have been widely applied for the estimation of animal abundance because they are regarded as simple, economical, and relatively precise. The recent development of automated techniques for the estimation of animal density from distance sampling data allows greater potential for ®eld biologists and wildlife managers to become involved(More)
In population ecology, there has been a fundamental controversy about the relative importance of competition-driven (density-dependent) population regulation vs. abiotic influences such as temperature and precipitation. The same issue arises at the community level; are population sizes driven primarily by changes in the abundances of cooccurring competitors(More)
High-fat diets are associated with obesity, and the weak satiety response elicited in response to dietary lipids is likely to play a role. Preliminary evidence from studies of medium (MCT) and long chain triglycerides (LCT) supports greater appetite suppression on high-MCT diets, possibly a consequence of direct portal access, more rapid oxidation and muted(More)
BACKGROUND Soluble-fiber beta-glucan derived from oats can reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk through reductions in total and LDL cholesterol. Barley-derived beta-glucan may also improve serum cholesterol, but large quantities are required for clinical significance. OBJECTIVE This trial investigated whether a beta-glucan-enriched form of barley can(More)
OBJECTIVE Little is known about the effects of alterations in fatty acid classes on adiponectin, a hormone secreted by the adipocyte known to be important in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Any factor, including diet, that may positively influence adiponectin gene expression or increase circulating levels might be useful for(More)
AIMS To compare the abilities of the monocentric rumen fungi Neocallimastix frontalis, Piromyces communis and Caecomyces communis, growing in coculture with Methanobrevibacter smithii, to colonize and degrade lignified secondary cell walls of lucerne (alfalfa) hay. METHODS AND RESULTS The cell walls of xylem cylinders isolated from stems of lucerne(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of moderate changes in dietary fatty acid profile on postprandial risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). DESIGN Double-blind, randomised, crossover, intervention trial. SETTING : University of Auckland Human Nutrition Unit, New Zealand. SUBJECTS A total of 18 lean healthy men. INTERVENTION A dairy butter(More)