Brian H. McArdle

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Nonparametric multivariate analysis of ecological data using permutation tests has two main challenges: (1) to partition the variability in the data according to a complex design or model, as is often required in ecological experiments, and (2) to base the analysis on a multivariate distance measure (such as the semimetric Bray-Curtis measure) that is(More)
Beta diversity can be defined as the variability in species composition among sampling units for a given area. We propose that it can be measured as the average dissimilarity from individual observation units to their group centroid in multivariate space, using an appropriate dissimilarity measure. Differences in beta diversity among different areas or(More)
OBJECTIVE Circulating levels of adiponectin are low in obesity and metabolic disorders associated with increasing fat mass including insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Body fat stores may be positively related to intake of dietary fat, but little is known of mechanisms by which serum adiponectin may be regulated through diet. We investigated acute effects(More)
BACKGROUND Soluble-fiber beta-glucan derived from oats can reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk through reductions in total and LDL cholesterol. Barley-derived beta-glucan may also improve serum cholesterol, but large quantities are required for clinical significance. OBJECTIVE This trial investigated whether a beta-glucan-enriched form of barley can(More)
A survey was conducted during the summer of 1994 within a fairly homogeneous 12.5 ha area of sandflat off Wiroa Island, in Manukau Harbour, New Zealand, to identify factors controlling the spatial distributions of the two dominant bivalves, Macomona liliana Iredale and Austrovenus stutchburyi (Gray), and to look for evidence of adult–juvenile interactions(More)
In population ecology, there has been a fundamental controversy about the relative importance of competition-driven (density-dependent) population regulation vs. abiotic influences such as temperature and precipitation. The same issue arises at the community level; are population sizes driven primarily by changes in the abundances of cooccurring competitors(More)
a , a a a b * S.F. Thrush , R.D. Pridmore , R.G. Bell , V.J. Cummings , P.K. Dayton , c d a a e a R. Ford , J. Grant , M.O. Green , J.E. Hewitt , A.H. Hines , T.M. Hume , f g h a i S.M. Lawrie , P. Legendre , B.H. McArdle , D. Morrisey , D.C. Schneider , a j k a S.J. Turner , R.A. Walters , R.B. Whitlatch , M.R. Wilkinson National Institute of Water and(More)
Development periods were determined for eggs and juvenile stages of the predatory phytoseiid miteTyphlodromus pyri at four constant temperatures and three feeding levels. For the non-feeding stages (eggs and larvae) power curve functions were fitted to development rate in terms of temperature. The results are compared to the general arthropod response to(More)
AIMS To compare the abilities of the monocentric rumen fungi Neocallimastix frontalis, Piromyces communis and Caecomyces communis, growing in coculture with Methanobrevibacter smithii, to colonize and degrade lignified secondary cell walls of lucerne (alfalfa) hay. METHODS AND RESULTS The cell walls of xylem cylinders isolated from stems of lucerne(More)