Brian H. Clowers

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Traditionally, the spectrum acquired using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is an average of multiple experimental cycles. Each cycle is initiated by passing a short burst of ions into a drift tube containing a homogeneous electric field. Prior to starting the subsequent cycle, all ions in the system must arrive at the detector or spectral overlap may occur.(More)
The bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague in humans and animals, normally has a sylvatic lifestyle, cycling between fleas and mammals. In contrast, laboratory-grown Y. pestis experiences a more constant environment and conditions that it would not normally encounter. The transition from the natural environment to the laboratory results in(More)
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