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BACKGROUND The increasing global burden of tuberculosis (TB) is linked to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS We reviewed data from notifications of TB cases, cohort treatment outcomes, surveys of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and HIV prevalence in patients with TB and other subgroups. Information was collated from published(More)
BACKGROUND Roughly 3 million people worldwide were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the end of 2007, but an estimated 6.7 million were still in need of treatment and a further 2.7 million became infected with HIV in 2007. Prevention efforts might reduce HIV incidence but are unlikely to eliminate this disease. We investigated a theoretical strategy(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the seroprevalence of HIV and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) by age and gender among young people aged 14--24 years in a South African town and to identify risk factors for HIV infection. DESIGN A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of men (n = 723) and women (n = 784) living in a township in the(More)
OBJECTIVE An AIDS epidemic among older children and adolescents is clinically apparent in Southern Africa. We estimated the likely scale and time course of the epidemic in older survivors of vertical HIV infection. DESIGN We modelled demographic, HIV prevalence, mother-to-child transmission and child survival data to project HIV burden among older(More)
BACKGROUND To investigate the association between migration and HIV infection among migrant and nonmigrant men and their rural partners. GOAL The goal was to determine risk factors for HIV-1 infection in South Africa. STUDY DESIGN This was a cross-sectional study of 196 migrant men and 130 of their rural partners, as well as 64 nonmigrant men and 98(More)
BACKGROUND The prognosis, specifically the case fatality and duration, of untreated tuberculosis is important as many patients are not correctly diagnosed and therefore receive inadequate or no treatment. Furthermore, duration and case fatality of tuberculosis are key parameters in interpreting epidemiological data. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To(More)
BACKGROUND WHO advocates the use of directly observed treatment with a short-course drug regimen as part of the DOTS strategy, but the potential effect of this strategy worldwide has not been investigated. METHODS We developed an age-structured mathematical model to explore the characteristics of tuberculosis control under DOTS, and to forecast the effect(More)
BACKGROUND A randomized controlled trial (RCT) has shown that male circumcision (MC) reduces sexual transmission of HIV from women to men by 60% (32%-76%; 95% CI) offering an intervention of proven efficacy for reducing the sexual spread of HIV. We explore the implications of this finding for the promotion of MC as a public health intervention to control(More)
OBJECTIVES To measure HIV-1 discordance among migrant and non-migrant men and their rural partners, and to estimate the relative risk of infection from inside versus outside primary relationships. DESIGN A cross-sectional behavioural and HIV-1 seroprevalence survey among 168 couples in which the male partner either a migrant, or not. METHODS A detailed(More)
BACKGROUND The global number of incident cases of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in 2000 was estimated to be 272,906 (95% confidence interval [CI], 184,948-414,295). For accurate planning of TB control programs, this estimate and others have been revised using data from additional countries and by including in the model previously treated TB(More)