Brian G. Williams

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BACKGROUND The increasing global burden of tuberculosis (TB) is linked to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS We reviewed data from notifications of TB cases, cohort treatment outcomes, surveys of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and HIV prevalence in patients with TB and other subgroups. Information was collated from published(More)
BACKGROUND Roughly 3 million people worldwide were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the end of 2007, but an estimated 6.7 million were still in need of treatment and a further 2.7 million became infected with HIV in 2007. Prevention efforts might reduce HIV incidence but are unlikely to eliminate this disease. We investigated a theoretical strategy(More)
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are among the leading causes of childhood mortality. Estimates of the number of children worldwide who die from ARI are needed in setting priorities for health care. To establish a relation between deaths due to ARI and all-cause deaths in children under 5 years we show that the proportion of deaths directly attributable(More)
BACKGROUND A randomized controlled trial (RCT) has shown that male circumcision (MC) reduces sexual transmission of HIV from women to men by 60% (32%-76%; 95% CI) offering an intervention of proven efficacy for reducing the sexual spread of HIV. We explore the implications of this finding for the promotion of MC as a public health intervention to control(More)
BACKGROUND To investigate the association between migration and HIV infection among migrant and nonmigrant men and their rural partners. GOAL The goal was to determine risk factors for HIV-1 infection in South Africa. STUDY DESIGN This was a cross-sectional study of 196 migrant men and 130 of their rural partners, as well as 64 nonmigrant men and 98(More)
OBJECTIVES To measure HIV-1 discordance among migrant and non-migrant men and their rural partners, and to estimate the relative risk of infection from inside versus outside primary relationships. DESIGN A cross-sectional behavioural and HIV-1 seroprevalence survey among 168 couples in which the male partner either a migrant, or not. METHODS A detailed(More)
Despite policies, strategies, and guidelines, the epidemic of HIV-associated tuberculosis continues to rage, particularly in southern Africa. We focus our attention on the regions with the greatest burden of disease, especially sub-Saharan Africa, and concentrate on prevention of tuberculosis in people with HIV infection, a challenge that has been greatly(More)
The main thrust of the World Health Organization's global tuberculosis (TB) control strategy is to ensure effective and equitable delivery of quality assured diagnosis and treatment of TB. Options for including preventive efforts have not yet been fully considered. This paper presents a narrative review of the historical and recent progress in TB control(More)
BACKGROUND WHO advocates the use of directly observed treatment with a short-course drug regimen as part of the DOTS strategy, but the potential effect of this strategy worldwide has not been investigated. METHODS We developed an age-structured mathematical model to explore the characteristics of tuberculosis control under DOTS, and to forecast the effect(More)