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Toll-IL-1-resistance (TIR) domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-related adaptor molecule (TRAM) is the fourth TIR domain-containing adaptor protein to be described that participates in Toll receptor signaling. Like TRIF, TRAM activates interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3, IRF-7, and NF-kappaB-dependent signaling pathways. Toll-like receptor(More)
The fibrillar peptide amyloid-beta (A beta) has a chief function in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a key cytokine in the inflammatory response to A beta. Insoluble materials such as crystals activate the inflammasome formed by the cytoplasmic receptor NALP3, which results in the release of IL-1 beta. Here we(More)
Inflammasomes regulate the activity of caspase-1 and the maturation of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-18. AIM2 has been shown to bind DNA and engage the caspase-1-activating adaptor protein ASC to form a caspase-1-activating inflammasome. Using Aim2-deficient mice, we identify a central role for AIM2 in regulating caspase-1-dependent maturation of(More)
The paramyxovirus Sendai (SV), is a well-established inducer of IFN-alphabeta gene expression. In this study we show that SV induces IFN-alphabeta gene expression normally in cells from mice with targeted deletions of the Toll-IL-1 resistance domain containing adapters MyD88, Mal, Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF), and(More)
Hemozoin (HZ) is an insoluble crystal formed in the food vacuole of malaria parasites. HZ has been reported to induce inflammation by directly engaging Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9, an endosomal receptor. "Synthetic" HZ (beta-hematin), typically generated from partially purified extracts of bovine hemin, is structurally identical to natural HZ. When(More)
The IL-1 family cytokines are regulated on transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Pattern recognition and cytokine receptors control pro-IL-1beta transcription whereas inflammasomes regulate the proteolytic processing of pro-IL-1beta. The NLRP3 inflammasome, however, assembles in response to extracellular ATP, pore-forming toxins, or crystals only(More)
An inducible program of inflammatory gene expression is central to antimicrobial defenses. This response is controlled by a collaboration involving signal-dependent activation of transcription factors, transcriptional co-regulators, and chromatin-modifying factors. We have identified a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that acts as a key regulator of this(More)
Microbial and synthetic DNA rich in CpG dinucleotides stimulates Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), whereas DNA lacking CpG either is inert or can inhibit TLR9 activation. The molecular mechanisms by which TLR9 becomes activated or is inhibited are not well understood. Here we show that TLR9 bound to stimulatory and inhibitory DNA; however, only stimulatory DNA(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main inducer of shock and death in Gram-negative sepsis. Recent evidence suggests that LPS-induced signal transduction begins with CD14-mediated activation of 1 or more Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The lipid A analogues lipid IVa and Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipid A (RSLA) exhibit an uncommon species-specific pharmacology. Both(More)
Toll–IL-1–resistance (TIR) domain–containing adaptor-inducing IFN-␤ (TRIF)–related adaptor molecule (TRAM) is the fourth TIR domain–containing adaptor protein to be described that participates in Toll receptor signaling. Like TRIF, TRAM activates interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3, IRF-7, and NF-␬ B-dependent signaling pathways. Toll-like receptor (TLR)3(More)