Brian G Monks

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The fibrillar peptide amyloid-beta (A beta) has a chief function in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a key cytokine in the inflammatory response to A beta. Insoluble materials such as crystals activate the inflammasome formed by the cytoplasmic receptor NALP3, which results in the release of IL-1 beta. Here we(More)
Inflammasomes regulate the activity of caspase-1 and the maturation of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-18. AIM2 has been shown to bind DNA and engage the caspase-1-activating adaptor protein ASC to form a caspase-1-activating inflammasome. Using Aim2-deficient mice, we identify a central role for AIM2 in regulating caspase-1-dependent maturation of(More)
The IL-1 family cytokines are regulated on transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Pattern recognition and cytokine receptors control pro-IL-1beta transcription whereas inflammasomes regulate the proteolytic processing of pro-IL-1beta. The NLRP3 inflammasome, however, assembles in response to extracellular ATP, pore-forming toxins, or crystals only(More)
Hemozoin (HZ) is an insoluble crystal formed in the food vacuole of malaria parasites. HZ has been reported to induce inflammation by directly engaging Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9, an endosomal receptor. "Synthetic" HZ (beta-hematin), typically generated from partially purified extracts of bovine hemin, is structurally identical to natural HZ. When(More)
Toll-IL-1-resistance (TIR) domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-related adaptor molecule (TRAM) is the fourth TIR domain-containing adaptor protein to be described that participates in Toll receptor signaling. Like TRIF, TRAM activates interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3, IRF-7, and NF-kappaB-dependent signaling pathways. Toll-like receptor(More)
The paramyxovirus Sendai (SV), is a well-established inducer of IFN-alphabeta gene expression. In this study we show that SV induces IFN-alphabeta gene expression normally in cells from mice with targeted deletions of the Toll-IL-1 resistance domain containing adapters MyD88, Mal, Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF), and(More)
Microbial and synthetic DNA rich in CpG dinucleotides stimulates Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), whereas DNA lacking CpG either is inert or can inhibit TLR9 activation. The molecular mechanisms by which TLR9 becomes activated or is inhibited are not well understood. Here we show that TLR9 bound to stimulatory and inhibitory DNA; however, only stimulatory DNA(More)
Microbial DNA sequences containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides activate Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). We have found that TLR9 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. Because there is no precedent for immune receptor signaling in the ER, we investigated how TLR9 is activated. We show that CpG DNA binds(More)
Mammalian responses to LPS require the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), CD14, and MD-2. We expressed fluorescent TLR4 in cell lines and found that TLR4 densely localized to the surface and the Golgi. Similar distributions were observed in human monocytes. Confocal imaging revealed rapid recycling of TLR4-CD14-MD-2 complexes between the Golgi and(More)
The NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a component of the inflammatory process, and its aberrant activation is pathogenic in inherited disorders such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) and complex diseases such as multiple sclerosis, type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and(More)