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We examine the paraphylectic hypothesis of bat origins, both in the light of previous discussions, and in the light of new evidence from our analyses of neurological traits and wing morphology. Megabats share with primates a variety of complex details in the organization of neural pathways that have not been found in any other mammalian group, particularly(More)
1. Polychaete sperm are divisible into ect-aquasperm, ent-aquasperm, and introsperm. 2. Ect-aquasperm are the commonest type of polychaete sperm and are considered plesiomorphic for the Polychaeta. Re-evolution of ect-aquasperm (as neo-aquasperm) is, nevertheless, tentatively hypothesized for some Sabellida. 3. In terms of ultrastructural studies of sperm(More)
This study focuses on the phylogenetic relationships within the Polyopisthocotylea and Monopisthocotylea, two groups that are often grouped within the monogeneans, a group of disputed paraphyly. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted with multiple outgroups chosen according to two hypotheses, a paraphyletic Monogenea or a monophyletic Monogenea, and with(More)
The nucleotide sequences of segments of the cytochrome b gene (351 bp), the tRNA(Pro) gene (49 bp), and the control region (approximately 313 bp) of mitochondrial DNA were obtained from 26 fish representing different populations and species of Melanotaenia and one species of Glossolepis, freshwater rainbow fishes confined to Australia and New Guinea. The(More)
The spermatozoa of Uta stansburiana and Urosaurus ornatus show the following squamate autapomorphies: a single perforatorium extending anteriorly from the apical tip of the paracrystalline subacrosomal cone; the presence of an epinuclear electron lucent region; intermitochondrial dense bodies; and the fibrous sheath extending into the midpiece. The acrosome(More)
The spermatozoa of Crotaphytus bicinctores and Gambelia wislizenii (Crotaphytidae), and Anolis carolinensis (Polychrotidae) exhibit the squamate autapomorphies of a single perforatorium extending anteriorly from the apical tip of the paracrystalline subacrosomal cone, the presence of an epinuclear electron-lucent region, and extension of the fibrous sheath(More)
The spermatozoa of four fossorial (Litoria alboguttata, Cyclorana brevipes, Cyclorana novaehollandiae and Cyclorana cryptotis) and two non-fossorial australian hylid frogs (Litoria aurea and Litoria moorei) together with previously examined Litoria (Hylidae: Anura) are compared. In spermatozoal ultrastructure (in particular the structure of the sperm tail)(More)
Platyhelminth phylogeny is controversial. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial domain C1 and the full domains D1 and C2 (358 nucleotides) from the 28S ribosomal RNA gene for 21 species from the Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, and, as the outgroup, Tricladida reveal major departures from prevailing theory. The Digenea and not the Monogenea (Monopisthocotylea(More)
A novel high-aspect-ratio penetrating microelectrode array was designed and fabricated for the purpose of recording neural activity. The array allows two dimensional recording of 64 sites in vitro with high aspect ratio penetrating electrodes. Traditional surface electrode arrays, although easy to fabricate, do not penetrate to the viable tissue such as(More)
Cocaine is a highly addictive psychostimulant that acts through competitive inhibition of the dopamine transporter. In order to fully understand the region specific neuropathology of cocaine abuse and addiction, it is unequivocally necessary to develop cocaine sensing technology capable of directly measuring real-time cocaine transient events local to(More)