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BACKGROUND MicroRNAs are modifiers of gene expression, acting to reduce translation through either translational repression or mRNA cleavage. Recently, it has been shown that some microRNAs can act to promote or suppress cell transformation, with miR-17-92 described as the first oncogenic microRNA. The association of miR-17-92 encoded microRNAs with a(More)
The formation of the mitotic spindle is an essential prerequisite for successful mitosis. The dramatic changes in the level of microtubule (Mt) nucleation at the centrosomes and Mt dynamics that occur in prophase are presumed to be initiated through the activity of cdc2/cyclin B. Here we present data that the cdc25B isoform functions to activate the(More)
Cdc25 regulates entry into mitosis by regulating the activation of cyclin B/cdc2. In humans, at least two cdc25 isoforms have roles in controlling the G2/M transition. Here we show, using bacterially expressed recombinant proteins, that two cdc25B splice variants, cdc25B2 and cdc25B3, are capable of activating cyclin A/cdk2 and cyclin B/cdc2, but that(More)
The unfertilized eggs of vertebrates are arrested in metaphase of meiosis II because of the activity of cytostatic factor (CSF). Xenopus CSF is thought to contain the product of the Mos proto-oncogene, but other proteins synthesized during meiosis II are also required for arrest induced by CSF. In Xenopus oocytes, ablation of synthesis of cyclin-dependent(More)
The loss of the tumor suppressor gene product p16 in melanoma is well documented, although the normal physiological function of p16 in skin melanocytes is unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that when human skin was irradiated with suberythemal doses of UV radiation, levels of p16 were dramatically increased by 16 h postirradiation, peaking at 24 h, and(More)
Individual tumour cells display diverse functional behaviours in terms of proliferation rate, cell-cell interactions, metastatic potential and sensitivity to therapy. Moreover, sequencing studies have demonstrated surprising levels of genetic diversity between individual patient tumours of the same type. Tumour heterogeneity presents a significant(More)
Functional clam cyclin A and B proteins have been produced using a baculovirus expression system. Both cyclin A and B can induce meiosis I and meiosis II in Xenopus in the absence of protein synthesis. Half-maximal induction occurs at 50 nM for cyclin A and 250 nM for cyclin B. Addition of 25 nM cyclin A to activated Xenopus egg extracts arrested in the(More)
These authors contributed equally to this work. ABSTRACT Cell cycle checkpoints act to protect cells from external stresses and internal errors that would compromise the integrity of the cell. Checkpoints are often defective in cancer cells. Drugs that target checkpoint mechanisms should therefore be selective for tumor cells that are defective for the(More)
In response to the growing need for functional analysis of the human genome, we have developed a platform for high-throughput functional screening of genes overexpressed from lentiviral vectors. Protein-coding human open reading frames (ORFs) from the Mammalian Gene Collection were transferred into lentiviral expression vector using the highly efficient(More)
Conventional chemotherapeutics target the proliferating fraction of cells in the patient's body, which will include the tumor cells, but are also toxic to actively proliferating normal tissues. Cellular stresses, such as those imposed by chemotherapeutic drugs, induce cell cycle checkpoint arrest, and currently approaches targeting these checkpoints are(More)