Brian Farrell

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[1] There is proxy evidence that the pronounced east-west temperature difference observed today across the equatorial Pacific Ocean may not have existed in the early Pliocene (4–5 Ma BP) and that the east Pacific cold tongue developed gradually toward the end of the Pliocene (2 Ma BP). The east Pacific temperature influences weather and climate worldwide,(More)
The origin of low-frequency variability in the midlatitude jet is investigated using a two-level baroclinic channel model. The model state fields are separated into slow and fast components using intermediate timescale averaging. In the equation for the fast variables the nonlinear wave–wave interactions are parameterized as a stochastic excitation. The(More)
Persistent superrotation is seen in the atmospheres of other terrestrial bodies (Venus, Titan) but not in that of present Earth, which is distinguished by equatorial easterlies. Nevertheless, superrotation has appeared in numerical simulations of Earth's atmosphere, from two-layer models to multilevel comprehensive GCMs. Simulations of warm climates that(More)
The generalized stability of the secondary atmospheric circulation over strong SST fronts is studied using a hydrostatic, Boussinesq, two-dimensional f-plane model. It is shown that even in a parameter regime in which these circulations are stable to small perturbations, significant nonnormal growth of optimal initial perturbations occurs. The maximum(More)
The generalized stability of a sea-breeze front is analyzed using a two-dimensional model. The objective is to understand the mechanisms leading to the shedding of eddies behind the sea-breeze front, as seen in observations, laboratory experiments and numerical models. Regions with Ri < 1/4 are not always associated with instability in this spatially(More)
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