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It was recently demonstrated that interleukin (IL)-23-driven IL-17-producing (ThIL-17) T cells mediate inflammatory pathology in certain autoimmune diseases. We show that the induction of antigen-specific ThIL-17 cells, but not T helper (Th)1 or Th2 cells, by immunization with antigens and adjuvants is abrogated in IL-1 receptor type I-deficient(More)
Clostridium difficile is the etiological agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and pseudomembranous colitis in humans. The role of the surface layer proteins (SLPs) in this disease has not yet been fully explored. The aim of this study was to investigate a role for SLPs in the recognition of C. difficile and the subsequent activation of the immune(More)
Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury refers to the tissue damage which occurs when blood supply returns to tissue after a period of ischemia and is associated with trauma, stroke, myocardial infarction, and solid organ transplantation. Although the cause of this injury is multifactorial, increasing experimental evidence suggests an important role for the(More)
BACKGROUND Lung delivery of plasmid DNA encoding the CFTR gene complexed with a cationic liposome is a potential treatment option for patients with cystic fibrosis. We aimed to assess the efficacy of non-viral CFTR gene therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis. METHODS We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial in two cystic(More)
INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blocking Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial cells. METHODS RA synovial tissue biopsies, obtained under direct visualization at arthroscopy, were established as synovial explant cultures ex vivo or snap frozen for immunohistology. Mononuclear cell cultures were(More)
Upregulation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays a critical role in inflammation associated with ischemia/reperfusion-induced tissue damage. OPN-305 is the first humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody against TLR2 in development and is intended for the prevention of reperfusion injury following renal transplantation and other indications. A phase I,(More)
INTRODUCTION This report describes the case mix, outcome and activity (duration of intensive care unit [ICU] and hospital stay, inter-hospital transfer, and readmissions to the ICU) for admissions to ICUs for acute severe asthma, and investigates the effect of case mix factors on outcome. METHODS We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a(More)
BACKGROUND Holistic care is a comprehensive model of caring. Previous studies have shown that most nurses do not apply this method. Examining the effective factors in nurses' provision of holistic care can help with enhancing it. Studying these factors from the point of view of nurses will generate real and meaningful concepts and can help to extend this(More)
The effects of Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation in peripheral cells are well characterized but, although several TLRs are expressed on cells of the brain, the consequences of their activation on neuronal function remain to be fully investigated, particularly in the context of assessing their potential as therapeutic targets in neurodegenerative diseases.(More)
We describe the clinical and neuropathological features of two cases of cerebellar degeneration with selective involvement of the dentate nucleus. Both cases were associated with malignancy, however known paraneoplastic antibodies were absent. Pathological studies at autopsy confirmed T-cell-mediated neuronal destruction in the cerebellum which was(More)