Brian F. Clem

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6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, a rate-limiting enzyme of glycolysis, is activated in neoplastic cells by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-BP), a product of four 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase isozymes (PFKFB1-4). The inducible PFKFB3 isozyme is constitutively expressed by neoplastic cells and required for the high glycolytic rate and(More)
A high rate of glycolytic flux, even in the presence of oxygen, is a central metabolic hallmark of neoplastic tumors. Cancer cells preferentially utilize glycolysis in order to satisfy their increased energetic and biosynthetic requirements. This metabolic phenotype has been confirmed in human studies using positron emission tomography (PET) with(More)
Activation of the RB1 pathway triggers the cell-cycle arrest that mediates cell-cell contact inhibition. Accordingly, mutation of all three RB1 family members leads to loss of contact inhibition and outgrowth of fibroblasts into spheres where cell-cell contacts predominate. We present evidence that such outgrowth triggers reprogramming to generate cells(More)
Glycolysis is increased in breast adenocarcinoma cells relative to adjacent normal cells in order to produce the ATP and anabolic precursors required for survival, growth and invasion. Glycolysis also serves as a key source of the reduced form of cytoplasmic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) necessary for the shuttling of electrons into mitochondria(More)
The regulation of metabolism and growth must be tightly coupled to guarantee the efficient use of energy and anabolic substrates throughout the cell cycle. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-BP) is an allosteric activator of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1), a rate-limiting enzyme and essential control point in glycolysis. The concentration of Fru-2,6-BP in(More)
Choline is an essential anabolic substrate for the synthesis of phospholipids. Choline kinase phosphorylates choline to phosphocholine that serves as a precursor for the production of phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid constituent of membranes and substrate for the synthesis of lipid signaling molecules. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based(More)
In human cancers, loss of PTEN, stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1α, and activation of Ras and AKT converge to increase the activity of a key regulator of glycolysis, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB3). This enzyme synthesizes fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F26BP), which is an activator of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, a key step of glycolysis. Previously,(More)
Retinoblastoma (Rb) protein is a tumor suppressor that is dysregulated in a majority of human cancers. Rb functions to inhibit cell cycle progression in part by directly disabling the E2F family of cell cycle-promoting transcription factors. Because the de novo synthesis of multiple glutamine-derived anabolic precursors is required for cell cycle(More)
Estradiol (E2) administered to estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer patients stimulates glucose uptake by tumors. Importantly, this E2-induced metabolic flare is predictive of the clinical effectiveness of anti-estrogens and, as a result, downstream metabolic regulators of E2 are expected to have utility as targets for the development of(More)
Rb1 restricts cell cycle progression, and it imposes cell contact inhibition to suppress tumor outgrowth. It also triggers oncogene-induced senescence to block Ras mutation. Loss of the Rb1 pathway, which is a hallmark of cancer cells, then provides a permissive environment for Ras mutation, and Ras is sufficient for invasive tumor formation in Rb1 family(More)