Brian E. Nolan

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CD8(+)-T-cell responses play an important role in the containment and clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and an association between viral persistence and development of viral escape mutations has been postulated. While escape from CD8+ -T-cell responses has been identified as a major driving force for the evolution of human immunodeficiency(More)
Vigorous proliferative CD4(+) T cell responses are the hallmark of spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, whereas comparable responses are absent in chronically evolving infection. Here, we comprehensively characterized the breadth, specificity, and quality of the HCV-specific CD4(+) T cell response in 31 patients with acute HCV(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS While the majority of HCV-infected patients progress to chronic hepatitis, a small fraction of individuals are able to clear the virus. Resolution of infection occurs within the first few weeks to months of infection, suggesting that innate immune functions may be critical for early control. Epidemiologic data support a role for particular(More)
UNLABELLED CD8(+) T cell responses play a key role in governing the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and viral evolution enabling escape from these responses may contribute to the inability to resolve infection. To more comprehensively examine the extent of CD8 escape and adaptation of HCV to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I restricted(More)
The dramatic antiviral activities of drugs that specifically inhibit hepatitis C virus replication can be tempered by baseline mutations that confer resistance. We describe the kinetics of an R155K mutation in hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease known to confer resistance to specific protease inhibitors in an individual coinfected with human(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS HLA class I alleles are linked to spontaneous control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus-1, but for HCV the roles of particular alleles and corresponding CD8(+) T-cell responses remain incompletely defined. We aimed to determine the correlations between these alleles and natural outcomes of HCV and determine(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8(+) T cells in persistent HCV infection are low in frequency and paradoxically show a phenotype associated with controlled infections, expressing the memory marker CD127. We addressed to what extent this phenotype is dependent on the presence of cognate antigen. We analyzed virus-specific responses in acute and chronic(More)
Cross-reactivity of murine and recently human CD8(+) T cells between different viral peptides, i.e., heterologous immunity, has been well characterized. However, the directionality and quality of these cross-reactions is critical in determining their biological importance. Herein we analyzed the response of human CD8(+) T cells that recognize both a(More)
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is typically characterized by a lack of virus-specific CD4(+) T-cell-proliferative responses, but strong responses have been described in a subset of persons with persistent viremia. One possible explanation for these responses is that they were primed by an earlier resolved infection and do not recognize the(More)
We monitored expression of PD-1 (a mediator of T-cell exhaustion and viral persistence) on hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells from blood and liver during acute and chronic infections and after the resolved infection stage. PD-1 expression on HCV-specific T cells was high early in acute infection irrespective of clinical outcome, and(More)