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Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy results in changes in behavior, and in the endocrine, immune and neurotransmitter systems, that simulates many of those seen in patients with major depression. The olfactory system in the rat forms a part of the limbic region in which the amygdala and hippocampus contribute to the emotional and memory components of behavior.(More)
The olfactory bulbectomized (OB) rat has been proposed as an animal model of depression. The following behavioural changes have been observed following bilateral olfactory bulbectomy: hyperactivity in an enclosed arena, such as the open-field; enhanced nocturnal hyperactivity in a 24-hr home cage activity monitor; deficits in memory, as shown by passive(More)
Since its first characterization as a model for the detection of antidepressant drugs (van Riezen et al., 1976) a large body of data now supports the view that olfactory bulbectomy produces changes in animal behavior that are reversed by chronic treatment with antidepressants. The behavioral deficits seen in olfactory bulbectomized rats (such as(More)
It has been reported that the balance between T-helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines and T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines plays a role in psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder. The T-helper type 3 (Th3) cytokine, which transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1), has been shown to modulate the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. However, the role of(More)
Chronic inflammation is now considered to be central to the pathogenesis not only of such medical disorders as cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, diabetes and cancer but also of major depression. If chronic inflammatory changes are a common feature of depression, this could predispose depressed patients to neurodegenerative changes in later life.(More)
It is of considerable translational importance whether depression is a form or a consequence of sickness behavior. Sickness behavior is a behavioral complex induced by infections and immune trauma and mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is an adaptive response that enhances recovery by conserving energy to combat acute inflammation. There are(More)
The activity of dizocilpine (MK-801; 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) administered once daily intraperitoneally (I.P.) was assessed in the olfactory bulbectomized rat model of depression. Olfactory bulbectomy (OB) is associated with a variety of behavioural abnormalities, such as hyperactivity in the "open field" test. Previous studies have shown that chronic(More)
Chronic stress, by initiating changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the immune system, acts as a trigger for anxiety and depression. There is experimental and clinical evidence that the rise in the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids, which occurs in a chronically stressful situation and also in depression,(More)
The limitations of antidepressant drugs to treat depression has warranted ongoing research to identify pharmacological agents and strategies which offer a faster onset of action and greater therapeutic efficacy. Noradrenaline and serotonin are widely reported to be involved in the mechanism of action of antidepressants and the recent development of(More)