Brian E Cade

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BACKGROUND A recent randomized controlled trial in critical-care units revealed that the elimination of extended-duration work shifts (> or =24 h) reduces the rates of significant medical errors and polysomnographically recorded attentional failures. This raised the concern that the extended-duration shifts commonly worked by interns may contribute to the(More)
How does sleepiness affect selective attention? We studied the effect of circadian phase and time awake on visual search. The generalized-cognitive-slowing hypothesis predicts that search rate will be slower, feature guidance less effective, and response time (RT) lengthened when observers are sleepy. Observers performed spatial-configuration (finding a 5(More)
CONTEXT Sleep disorders often remain undiagnosed. Untreated sleep disorders among police officers may adversely affect their health and safety and pose a risk to the public. OBJECTIVE To quantify associations between sleep disorder risk and self-reported health, safety, and performance outcomes in police officers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS(More)
BACKGROUND Knowledge of the physiological effects of extended (24 hours or more) work shifts in postgraduate medical training is limited. We aimed to quantify work hours, sleep, and attentional failures among first-year residents (postgraduate year 1) during a traditional rotation schedule that included extended work shifts and during an intervention(More)
BACKGROUND Long work hours and work shifts of an extended duration (> or =24 hours) remain a hallmark of medical education in the United States. Yet their effect on health and safety has not been evaluated with the use of validated measures. METHODS We conducted a prospective nationwide, Web-based survey in which 2737 residents in their first postgraduate(More)
CONTEXT In their first year of postgraduate training, interns commonly work shifts that are longer than 24 hours. Extended-duration work shifts are associated with increased risks of automobile crash, particularly during a commute from work. Interns may be at risk for other occupation-related injuries. OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between extended(More)
Hyperglycaemia disproportionately affects African-Americans (AfAs). We tested the transferability of 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with glycaemic traits identified in European ancestry (EuA) populations in 5,984 non-diabetic AfAs. We meta-analysed SNP associations with fasting glucose (FG) or insulin (FI) in AfAs from five cohorts in(More)
The risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increased by abnormalities in sleep quantity and quality, circadian alignment, and melatonin regulation. A common genetic variant in a receptor for the circadian-regulated hormone melatonin (MTNR1B) is associated with increased fasting blood glucose and risk of T2D, but whether sleep or circadian disruption mediates this(More)
CONTEXT Sleep deprivation is associated with increased risk of serious medical errors and motor vehicle crashes among interns. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) introduced duty-hour standards in 2003 to reduce work hours. OBJECTIVE To estimate compliance with the ACGME duty-hour standards among interns. DESIGN, SETTING,(More)
BACKGROUND Short sleep duration has been associated with greater risks of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Also, common genetic variants in the human Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) show associations with ghrelin and total energy intake. OBJECTIVES We examined associations between habitual sleep duration, body(More)