Learn More
BACKGROUND Cells sense the extracellular environment using adhesion receptors (integrins) linked to the intracellular actin cytoskeleton through a complex network of regulatory proteins that, all together, form focal adhesions (FAs). The molecular basis of how these sensing units are regulated, how they are implicated in transducing mechanical stimuli, and(More)
A piezoelectric actuated, drop-on-demand inkjet printing system has been used to deliver suspensions of human fibroblast cells from a well-characterized cell line (HT 1080) in order to investigate the behaviour of cells exposed to the mechanical and fluid stresses associated with the printing process. By varying the amplitude and rise time of the electrical(More)
New manufacturing technologies under the banner of rapid prototyping enable the fabrication of structures close in architecture to biological tissue. In their simplest form, these technologies allow the manufacture of scaffolds upon which cells can grow for later implantation into the body. A more exciting prospect is the printing and patterning in three(More)
Age-related loss of tissue elasticity is a common cause of human morbidity and arteriosclerosis (vascular stiffening) is associated with the development of both fatal strokes and heart failure. However, in the absence of appropriate micro-mechanical testing methodologies, multiple structural remodelling events have been proposed as the cause of(More)
Novel collagen scaffolds possessing predefined and reproducible internal channels with widths of 135 microm and greater have been produced. The process employed to make the collagen scaffold utilises a sacrificial mould, manufactured using solid freeform fabrication technology, and critical point drying technique. A computer aided design (CAD) file of the(More)
An increasing demand for directed assembly of biologically relevant materials, with prescribed three-dimensional hierarchical organizations, is stimulating technology developments with the ultimate goal of re-creating multicellular tissues and organs de novo. Existing techniques, mostly adapted from other applications or fields of research, are capable of(More)
To produce stable lines with parallel sides through inkjet printing, individual drops are deposited on a surface so that they coalesce; this initial liquid line (or bead) must remain stable until it forms a solid. The stable line width is shown to be bounded by two limits, with the lower bound (minimum line width) determined by the maximum drop spacing for(More)
PURPOSE To assess the feasibility of applying scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) on UV cross-linked corneal tissue for mapping and analyzing its biomechanical properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS Five corneal pairs (10 corneas) were used. In each pair, one cornea was cross-linked (epithelium removed, riboflavin application for 45 min and UVA irradiation for(More)
The quality of life of ageing populations is increasingly determined by age-related changes to the mechanical properties of numerous biological tissues. Degradation and mechanical failure of these tissues has a profound effect on human morbidity and mortality. Soft tissues have complex and intricate structures and, similar to engineering materials, their(More)
PURPOSE To explore the biomechanical changes induced by repeated cross-linking using scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM). METHODS Thirty human corneas were divided into three groups. In group A, five corneas were cross-linked once. In group B, five corneas were cross-linked twice, 24 hours apart. In group C, five corneas were cross-linked three times, 24(More)