Brian D. Stemper

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The incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among military personnel is at its highest point in U.S. history. Experimental animal models of blast have provided a wealth of insight into blast injury. The mechanisms of neurotrauma caused by blast, however, are still under debate. Specifically, it is unclear whether the blast shockwave in the absence of head(More)
The aim of our work was to expand on the knowledge concerning mild Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI), by combining numerical modeling and animal experiments within a joint approach. A three-dimensional finite element model of the rat brain and braincase was developed, and experimental acceleration pulses were applied. Pulse data were obtained from tests(More)
A new experimental model was developed to induce diffuse brain injury (DBI) in rats through pure coronal plane angular acceleration. An impactor was propelled down a guide tube toward the lateral extension of the helmet fixture. Upon impactor-helmet contact, helmet and head were constrained to rotate in the coronal plane. In the present experimental series,(More)
Although considerable biomechanical investigations have been conducted to understand the response of the cervical spine under whiplash (rear impact-induced postero-anterior loading to the thorax), studies delineating the effects of initial spinal curvature are limited. This study advanced the hypothesis that abnormal curvatures (straight or kyphotic) of the(More)
Commonly considered a continuum of injuries, diffuse brain injury (DBI) ranges from mild concussion to severe diffuse axonal injury. The lower end of the spectrum is generally referred to as mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). More severe forms of DBI have garnered extensive experimentation while these milder cases are considerably less explored. Recently,(More)
A majority of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in motor vehicle crashes and sporting environments are mild and caused by high-rate acceleration of the head. For injuries caused by rotational acceleration, both magnitude and duration of the acceleration pulse were shown to influence injury outcomes. This study incorporated a unique rodent model of rotational(More)
Biomechanical studies using postmortem human subjects (PMHS) in lateral impact have focused primarily on chest and pelvis injuries, mechanisms, tolerances, and comparison with side impact dummies. A paucity of data exists on the head-neck junction, i.e., forces and moments, and cranial angular accelerations. The objective of this study was to determine(More)
BACKGROUND Aging, trauma, or degeneration can affect intervertebral kinematics. While in vivo studies can determine motions, moments are not easily quantified. Previous in vitro studies on the cervical spine have largely used specimens from older individuals with varying levels of degeneration and have shown that moment-rotation responses under lateral(More)
Due to recent involvement in military conflicts, and an increase in the use of explosives, there has been an escalation in the incidence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) among US military personnel. Having a better understanding of the cellular and molecular cascade of events in bTBI is prerequisite for the development of an effective therapy(More)
Recent studies suggest that dorsal spine injuries occur in motor vehicle crashes to restrained occupants. Compression/compression-flexion injuries occur in frontal crashes due to seat pan and vertical loading. While injuries, mechanisms and tolerances for neck injuries have been determined, thoraco-lumbar spine data are very limited. The objective of the(More)