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A Finite Element Model (FEM) of the young adult human cervical spine has been developed as a first step in studying the process of spondylotic degeneration. The model was developed using normal geometry and material properties for the lower cervical spine. The model used a three-zone composite disc annulus to reflect the different material properties of the(More)
Biomechanical studies using postmortem human subjects (PMHS) in lateral impact have focused primarily on chest and pelvis injuries, mechanisms, tolerances, and comparison with side impact dummies. A paucity of data exists on the head-neck junction, i.e., forces and moments, and cranial angular accelerations. The objective of this study was to determine(More)
OBJECT Although facet joints have been implicated in the whiplash injury mechanism, no investigators have determined the degree to which joint motions in whiplash are nonphysiological. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the correlation between facet joint and segmental motions under physiological and whiplash loading. METHODS Human(More)
Although considerable biomechanical investigations have been conducted to understand the response of the cervical spine under whiplash (rear impact-induced postero-anterior loading to the thorax), studies delineating the effects of initial spinal curvature are limited. This study advanced the hypothesis that abnormal curvatures (straight or kyphotic) of the(More)
The aim of our work was to expand on the knowledge concerning mild Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI), by combining numerical modeling and animal experiments within a joint approach. A three-dimensional finite element model of the rat brain and braincase was developed, and experimental acceleration pulses were applied. Pulse data were obtained from tests(More)
A majority of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in motor vehicle crashes and sporting environments are mild and caused by high-rate acceleration of the head. For injuries caused by rotational acceleration, both magnitude and duration of the acceleration pulse were shown to influence injury outcomes. This study incorporated a unique rodent model of rotational(More)
The incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among military personnel is at its highest point in U.S. history. Experimental animal models of blast have provided a wealth of insight into blast injury. The mechanisms of neurotrauma caused by blast, however, are still under debate. Specifically, it is unclear whether the blast shockwave in the absence of head(More)
A new experimental model was developed to induce diffuse brain injury (DBI) in rats through pure coronal plane angular acceleration. An impactor was propelled down a guide tube toward the lateral extension of the helmet fixture. Upon impactor-helmet contact, helmet and head were constrained to rotate in the coronal plane. In the present experimental series,(More)
A head-neck computer model was comprehensively validated over a range of rear-impact velocities using experiments conducted by the same group of authors in the same laboratory. Validations were based on mean +/- 1 standard deviation response curves, i.e. corridors. Global head-neck angle, segmental angle and local facet joint regional kinematic responses(More)
This report provides an overview of the biomechanics associated with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as concussion. Specifically, the role of angular acceleration in modulating concussion onset and severity is highlighted. Studies conducted and published from the 1960s to the 1980s provided initial estimates for TBI tolerance due to high rate(More)