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STUDY DESIGN Nonsystematic review and discussion of prognosis after whiplash injury. OBJECTIVE To summarize the research and identify a research agenda for improving prognostic models after whiplash injury. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA With up to 50% of individuals failing to fully recover after whiplash injury, the capacity to determine a precise(More)
Although considerable biomechanical investigations have been conducted to understand the response of the cervical spine under whiplash (rear impact-induced postero-anterior loading to the thorax), studies delineating the effects of initial spinal curvature are limited. This study advanced the hypothesis that abnormal curvatures (straight or kyphotic) of the(More)
STUDY DESIGN Localized facet joint kinematics resulting from whiplash acceleration were analyzed in the dynamic domain during the time of cervical S-curvature using intact head and neck specimens and a pendulum mini-sled loading apparatus. OBJECTIVES To determine the effects of gender, impact severity, cervical level, and anatomic joint region on shear(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the bone mineral density (BMD) of cervical vertebrae and correlate with the lumbar spine. Fifty-seven young adult healthy male volunteers, ranging from 18 to 41 years of age, underwent quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scanning of C2-T1 and L2-L4 vertebrae. To account for correlations, repeated measures(More)
A Finite Element Model (FEM) of the young adult human cervical spine has been developed as a first step in studying the process of spondylotic degeneration. The model was developed using normal geometry and material properties for the lower cervical spine. The model used a three-zone composite disc annulus to reflect the different material properties of the(More)
STUDY DESIGN This study determined bone mineral density (BMD) of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae in healthy asymptomatic human subjects. OBJECTIVES To test the hypothesis that BMD of neck vertebrae (C2-C7) is equivalent to BMD of lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA BMD of lumbar vertebrae is correlated to their strength.(More)
Biomechanical studies using postmortem human subjects (PMHS) in lateral impact have focused primarily on chest and pelvis injuries, mechanisms, tolerances, and comparison with side impact dummies. A paucity of data exists on the head-neck junction, i.e., forces and moments, and cranial angular accelerations. The objective of this study was to determine(More)
STUDY DESIGN Expert debate and synthesis of research to inform future management approaches for acute whiplash disorders. OBJECTIVE To identify a research agenda toward improving outcomes for acute whiplash-injured individuals to lessen the incidence of transition to chronicity. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA International figures are concordant, estimating(More)
STUDY DESIGN Review of peer-reviewed literature. OBJECTIVE Outline the effects of neck and cervical spine morphology on soft tissue injury Potential during low velocity automotive rear impacts. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Automotive rear impacts are mechanical events and the response of the human head-neck complex can be thought of in biomechanical(More)
The objective of the study was to determine differences between the United States-based NASS and CIREN and Australia-based ANCIS databases in occupant-, crash-, and vehicle-related parameters for AIS 4+ head injuries in motor vehicle crashes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine roles of the change in velocity (DV), crash type (frontal,(More)