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Previous studies have shown that in select neurons, neurite outgrowth can be regulated by the same neurotransmitter that is synthesized and released by those neurons. However, it is not known whether such an autoregulatory mechanism is utilized during the normal course of nervous system development in either invertebrates or vertebrates. In the present(More)
Double-labelling studies at the electron microscopic level demonstrated that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive nerve endings are associated with growth-hormone-secreting cells in the proximal pars distalis of the goldfish pituitary gland, suggesting that GABA may be important for the control of growth hormone release in this species. An in vitro(More)
High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used to measure the concentrations of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), p-hydroxyphenylethanolamine (octopamine), alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, and tryptophan in the cerebral ganglia of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) after peripheral administration(More)
The effects of the dopamine type-2 receptor (D-2) antagonist domperidone on pituitary and brain amine concentrations and serum gonadotropin levels in the goldfish were investigated. Domperidone caused a long-lasting, dose-dependent depletion of dopamine in the goldfish pituitary. Pituitary concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) were unaffected by(More)
The influence of GABA on pituitary gonadotrophin (GTH) release in the goldfish was studied by means of in vivo and in vitro techniques. It was found that GABA injected intraperitoneally caused an increase of serum GTH levels in regressed or early maturing fish, but not in late maturing animals. Moreover, injection of a GABA transaminase inhibitor caused a(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if HT-1001, an extract of American ginseng, affects scopolamine-induced memory and performance deficits in a spatial learning task, alters brain concentrations of aminergic neurotransmitters, and alters choline uptake in synaptosome preparations. DESIGN Animal study. ANIMALS 48 Sprague Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS Long-term oral(More)
The involvement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in regulation of pituitary gonadotropin-II (GTH-II) release was studied in the goldfish. Intraperitoneal injection of GABA (300 micrograms/g) stimulated an increase in serum GTH-II levels at 30 min postinjection. The GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (0.1-10 micrograms/g) stimulated GTH-II in a dose-dependent(More)
In goldfish it is known that intraperitoneal implantation with testosterone (T) or estradiol (E2) potentiates the serum gonadotropin-II (GtH-II) response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) without affecting basal GtH-II levels. Since the release of GtH-II in goldfish is under a tonic dopaminergic inhibitory tone, the possibility of sex steroids(More)
Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 1 or 10 mg/l chlordiazepoxide showed normal alarm behavior during the presentation of alarm pheromone. Fish exposed to 20 mg/l drug, however, showed little or no behavioral alarm and did not appear sedated. A food extract stimulus presented after alarm pheromone led to a large foraging response by fish(More)
In goldfish, the gonadal steroid, 17 alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-P), functions as a potent preovulatory female sex pheromone which stimulates rapid elevations in serum gonadotropin (GtH) levels and subsequent increases in milt production in males. GtH secretion in goldfish is known to be regulated by the stimulatory actions of(More)