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Acute renal failure (ARF), characterized by sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, conserve electrolytes, and maintain fluid balance, is a frequent clinical problem, particularly in the intensive care unit, where it is associated with a mortality of between 50% and 80%. In this review, the epidemiology and(More)
A quantitative method is described for the measurement of intralysosomal pH in living cells. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FD) is endocytized and accumulates in lysosomes where it remains without apparent degradation. The fluorescence spectrum of this compound changes with pH in the range 4-7 and is not seriously affected by FD concentration,(More)
The spectral characteristics of dextran, labeled with fluorescein, depend upon pH. We have loaded the lysosomes of mouse peritoneal macrophages with this fluorescence probe and used it to measure the intralysosomal pH under various conditions. The pH of the medium has no effect on the intralysosomal pH. Weakly basic substances in the medium cause a(More)
With few exceptions, weakly basic compounds that are sufficiently lipophilic in their neutral forms and sufficiently hydrophilic in their protonated forms accumulate in lysosomes. When the concentration within the lysosomes becomes sufficiently high, osmotic swelling occurs. The cells than take on a vacuolated appearance. The concentrations at which(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a complex disease with a multifactoral etiology, with genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences. Molecular mimicry as a result of viral infection may contribute to the development of lupus. The pattern of autoantibody development in lupus is consistent with initiation through molecular mimicry, as the(More)
Improved, largely automated methods are described for the purification and analysis o peroxisomes, lysosomes, and mitochondria from the livers of rats injected with Triton WR-1339. With these new methods, it has become possible to obtain, in less than 6 hr and with reliable reproducibility, mitochondria practically free of contaminants, as well as the rarer(More)
The subcellular distribution of the biosynthetic intermediates of catalase was studied in the livers of rats receiving a mixture of [(3)H]leucine and [(14)C]delta-aminolevulinic acid by intraportal injection. Postnuclear supernates were fractionated by a one-step gradient centrifugation technique that separates the main subcellular organelles, partly on the(More)
The degradation of cellular proteins in fibroblasts, both those of rapid and those of slow turnover rates, was inhibited by low concentrations of chloroquine or neutral red in the medium. Cells inhibited by chloroquine can be inhibited further by fluoride. Chloroquine was taken up by the fibroblasts and the concentration in the cells reached several hundred(More)
After preliminary experiments had established that the injection of Triton WR-1339 necessary for the separation of lysosomes and peroxisomes did not affect the turnover rate of catalase, the decay of (3)H-leucine incorporated into peroxisomes was studied in whole particles and in protein subfractions. It was shown that peroxisomes are destroyed in a(More)
Improved, largely automated methods are described for the purification and analysis o peroxisomes, lysosomes, and mitochondria from the livers of rats injected with Triton WR-1339. With these new methods, it has become possible to obtain, in less than 6 hr and with reliable reproducibility, mitochondria practically free of contaminants, as well as the rarer(More)