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In the accompanying article (T.E. Gunter and B.D. Jensen, 1986 Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 248, 289-304), a method is described for measuring the efficiencies of individual steps of the process of oxidative phosphorylation. The results of applying this method to the case of state 3 phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria are reported here. The rate of energy(More)
Most earlier theoretical work on oxidative phosphorylation has emphasized the application of the formalism of nonequilibrium thermodynamics to the overall process. The resultant mathematical development and interpretation of some experimental data is complicated somewhat by the necessity of treating a system which is incompletely coupled (degree of(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new alternative fluorescence immunoassay method (Zymmune CD4/CD8 Cell Monitoring Kit; Zynaxis, Inc., Malvern, Pa.) for determining the absolute CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte concentrations in whole blood. The investigation was performed as a two-site comparison of the reference whole blood flow cytometric method with(More)
We present a non-fluidic pronuclear injection method using a silicon microchip “nanoinjector” composed of a microelectromechanical system with a solid, electrically conductive lance. Unlike microinjection which uses fluid delivery of DNA, nanoinjection electrically accumulates DNA on the lance, the DNA-coated lance is inserted into the pronucleus, and DNA(More)
—By integrating interferometric deflection data from electrostatically actuated microcantilevers with a numerical finite difference model, we have developed a step-by-step procedure to determine values of Young's modulus while simultaneously quantifying nonidealities. The central concept in the methodology is that nonidealities affect the long-range(More)
Development of an effective cytoplasmic delivery technique has remained an elusive goal for decades despite the success of pronuclear microinjection. Cytoplasmic injections are faster and easier than pronuclear injection and do not require the pronuclei to be visible; yet previous attempts to develop cytoplasmic injection have met with limited success. In(More)
This paper presents the design optimization of a RF-MEMS direct contact cantilever switch for minimum actuation voltage and opening time, and maximum power handling capability. The design variables are the length and thickness of the entire cantilever, the widths of the sections of the cantilever, and the dimple size. The actuation voltage is obtained using(More)
This paper presents a surface-micromachined microelectromechanical system nanoinjector designed to inject DNA into mouse zygotes which are ≈90 μm in diameter. The proposed injection method requires that an electrically charged, DNA coated lance be inserted into the mouse zygote. The nanoinjector's principal design requirements are (1) it must penetrate the(More)
This thesis has been read by each member of the following graduate committee and by majority vote has been found to be satisfactory. As chair of the candidate's graduate committee, I have read the thesis of Regis A. David in its final form and have found that (1) its format, citations, and bibliographical style are consistent and acceptable and fulfill(More)