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Increases in type 1 phosphatase (PP1) activity have been observed in end stage human heart failure, but the role of this enzyme in cardiac function is unknown. To elucidate the functional significance of increased PP1 activity, we generated models with (i) overexpression of the catalytic subunit of PP1 in murine hearts and (ii) ablation of the PP1-specific(More)
To test the hypothesis that activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon isoform leads to cardiac hypertrophy without failure, we studied transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of the PKCepsilon isoform driven by an alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter. In transgenic mice, the protein level of PKCepsilon in(More)
To investigate the local effects of angiotensin II on the heart, we created a mouse model with 100-fold normal cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), but no ACE expression in kidney or vascular endothelium. This was achieved by placing the endogenous ACE gene under the control of the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter using targeted homologous(More)
OBJECTIVE A new member of the MAP kinase family, big MAP kinase-1 (BMK1), has been recently identified to promote cell growth and attenuate apoptosis. P90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK), one of the potentially important substrates of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), regulates gene expression in part via phosphorylation of CREB and the Na(+)/H(+)(More)
A major problem in studying biological traits is understanding how genes work together to provide organismal structures and functions. Conventional reductionist paradigms attribute functions to particular proteins, motifs, and amino acids. An equally important but harder problem involves the synthesis of data at fundamental levels of biological systems to(More)
BACKGROUND Therapeutic potential was evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction using nanofiber-expanded human cord blood derived hematopoietic stem cells (CD133+/CD34+) genetically modified with VEGF plus PDGF genes (VIP). METHODS AND FINDINGS Myocardial function was monitored every two weeks up to six weeks after therapy. Echocardiography(More)
Background—Receptor-mediated activation of myocardial Gq signaling is postulated as a biochemical mechanism transducing pressure-overload hypertrophy. The specific effects of Gq activation on the functional and morphological adaptations to pressure overload are not known. Methods and Results—To determine the effects of intrinsic myocyte G␣q signaling on the(More)
Studies in advanced heart failure show down-regulation of fatty acid oxidation genes, possibly due to decreased expression of the nuclear transcription factors peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha). We assessed mRNA and protein expression of PPARalpha and RXRalpha, and for several PPAR/RXR(More)
The effects of dietary fat intake on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy and accompanying structural and molecular remodeling in response to hypertension are not understood. The present study compared the effects of a high-fat versus a low-fat diet on development of left ventricular hypertrophy, remodeling, contractile dysfunction, and induction(More)
While considerable evidence supports the causal relationship between increases in c-Myc (Myc) and cardiomyopathy as a part of a "fetal re-expression" pattern, the functional role of Myc in mechanisms of cardiomyopathy remains unclear. To address this, we developed a bitransgenic mouse that inducibly expresses Myc under the control of the(More)