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Increases in type 1 phosphatase (PP1) activity have been observed in end stage human heart failure, but the role of this enzyme in cardiac function is unknown. To elucidate the functional significance of increased PP1 activity, we generated models with (i) overexpression of the catalytic subunit of PP1 in murine hearts and (ii) ablation of the PP1-specific(More)
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a clinical syndrome, which is the result of systolic or diastolic ventricular dysfunction. During CHF, vascular tone is regulated by the interplay of neurohormonal mechanisms and endothelial-dependent factors and is characterized by both central and peripheral vasoconstriction as well as a resistance to nitric oxide(More)
—Cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure are known to be associated with a reduction in Ca 2ϩ-ATPase pump levels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). To determine whether, and to what extent, alterations in Ca 2ϩ pump numbers can affect contraction and relaxation parameters of the heart, we have overexpressed the cardiac SR Ca 2ϩ-ATPase specifically in the(More)
Impaired myocardial contractile function is a hallmark of heart failure (HF), which may present under resting conditions and/or during physiological stress. Previous studies have reported that high fat feeding in mild to moderate HF/left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is associated with improved contractile function at baseline. The goal of this study was to(More)
To test the hypothesis that activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon isoform leads to cardiac hypertrophy without failure, we studied transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of the PKCepsilon isoform driven by an alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter. In transgenic mice, the protein level of PKCepsilon in(More)
When O2 availability is reduced unavoidably, as it is at high altitude, a potential mechanism to improve O2 delivery to tissues is an increase in blood flow. Nitric oxide (NO) regulates blood vessel diameter and can influence blood flow. This field study of intrapopulation variation at high altitude tested the hypothesis that the level of exhaled NO (a(More)
To investigate the local effects of angiotensin II on the heart, we created a mouse model with 100-fold normal cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), but no ACE expression in kidney or vascular endothelium. This was achieved by placing the endogenous ACE gene under the control of the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter using targeted homologous(More)
The rat infarct model is widely used in heart failure research, but few echocardiographic indexes of left ventricular (LV) function are validated in this model. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to validate a 13-segment LV wall motion score index (WMSI) and the myocardial performance index (MPI) in infarcted rats. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats(More)
Background—Receptor-mediated activation of myocardial Gq signaling is postulated as a biochemical mechanism transducing pressure-overload hypertrophy. The specific effects of Gq activation on the functional and morphological adaptations to pressure overload are not known. Methods and Results—To determine the effects of intrinsic myocyte G␣q signaling on the(More)
OBJECTIVE A new member of the MAP kinase family, big MAP kinase-1 (BMK1), has been recently identified to promote cell growth and attenuate apoptosis. P90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK), one of the potentially important substrates of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), regulates gene expression in part via phosphorylation of CREB and the Na(+)/H(+)(More)